r2l=written from right 2 left
On this page: the following languages:
- Avesta (r2l)
- Circassia: Languages are: Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Kabardian, Karachay-Balkar, Ossetic, Ubykh
- Iranian languages
- Syriac, estrangelo, aramaic a.o.
- Albanian and Elbasan
- Kurdish (Kurmandji)
- Hebrew: with vowels and consonants and without
- Arabic and Persian (r2l)
Amharic (Amharic: አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Ethiopia.
The Amharic script is an abugida, and the graphs of the Amharic writing system are called fidel. Each character represents a consonant+vowel sequence, but the basic shape of each character is determined by the consonant, which is modified for the vowel.
In the Amharic bible of 1952 were 235 letters identified.
Some of these are displayed:
and then the 45 most common letters:
The period en semi colon and reading signs are properly read: they are always on the Z-pos of a word:
This language has so many possible characters that it seems impossible to me to encrypt the VMS text into these characters and use only about 16 char’s and still have a reasonable readable text.
Avesta is the oldest extant Iranian language. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian family of languages. It is the mother of other Iranian languages like Old Persian, Middle Persian, Kurdish, Pashtu and Ossetic. Avesta heads the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian language,
just as Vedic Sanskrit is the source for the Indian branch, which has languages like
Hindustani, Bengali and Marathi. The striking similarity between Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan is on account of their common origin
There is a slight variance in the way some of the letters of the Avestan script were written by scribes in Iran and India. The Iranian scribes wrote in an ornamental manner with a greater flourish and curves at the end.
The Indian scribes used straight strokes. In this book the Avestan script of Indian style has been used
Special distinguishing features of the Avestan script:
1) The Avestan script is written from right to left.
2) The direction of writing and relative positions of each letter have to be noted.
3) One sound may be represented by more than one character, depending on their
placement in the word.
4) Each Avestan character has an equivalent for transcription. Most of these character are
from the English alphabet, but some are adopted from the Greek alphabet, and a few
special characters have been introduced. By and large the system of Karl Hoffmann has
been adopted for transcription.
5) Every complete Avesta word is followed by a dot (like a full stop), called a wordseparator.
6) Three dots ` are used to indicate the end of a sentence. Sometimes three small circles
used in a similar way, indicate the end of a paragraph.
In total, the Avestan alphabet has 37 consonants and 16 vowels
I analyzed: from http://www.avesta.org/ chapters1-11
YASNA (Sacred Liturgy):
Based on edition of Karl F. Geldner, Avesta, the Sacred Books of the Parsis, Stuttgart, 1896.
Here are 32 letters used in the graph.
In this transciption every original letter is transcribed to an Latin letter equivalent.
The original word seperator has become the standard space.
Although there are some letters interesting, the huge bar of the letter ‘a’ will only become only bigger when we would try to merge letters, in order to come to half this amount of letters such as the VMS has.
Azerbaijani is a member of the Oghuz/Western branch of the Turkic languages and is closely related to Turkish, Qashqai, Turkmen and Crimean Tatar. Turkish and Azerbaijani closely resemble one another and are largely mutually intelligible, though it has been said that it is easier for a speaker of Azerbaijani to understand Turkish than the other way around
Azerbaijani served as a lingua franca throughout most parts of Transcaucasia (except the Black Sea coast), in Southern Dagestan,Eastern Turkey, andIranian Azerbaijan from the 16th century to the early 20th century
A lingua franca/ˌlɪŋɡwə ˈfræŋkə/ (plural lingue franche or lingua francas), also called a bridge language, trade language, or vehicular language, is a language systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
Azerbaijani is sometimes classified as two languages, North and South Azerbaijani.
Before 1929, Azerbaijani was written only in the Perso-Arabic script. (is a writing system based on the Arabic script. )
Info on ancient scripts: http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/91_folder/91_articles/91_scents.html
An example of how true these facts are when you read http://www.visions.az/baku,83/
you can read about an historical building and history.
With respect to this language and the VMS i see no letter (read:bar) interesting enough to investigate further.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ met.rem.ən.khēmi, Sahidic: ⲙⲛⲧⲣⲙⲛⲕⲏⲙⲉ mənt.rəm.ən.kēme, Greek: Μετ Ρεμνχημι Met Rem(e)nkhēmi) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language. Currently only used in the Coptic church. By Egyptians used as nationwide language 2nd – 17th century.
Several distinct Coptic dialects are identified, the most prominent of which are Sahidic, originating in parts of Upper Egypt, and Bohairic.
Coptic flourished as a literary language from the 2nd to 13th centuries, and its Bohairic dialect continues to be the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
Coptic Calender and some more info: http://www.copticchurch.net/easter.html
I took the Matthew, New testament text for analysis.
Bohairic (still used now) and Sahidic (ancient)
If we try to find differences between these two, we see that the DNA provides almost the same image. And if we compare there is a shift that reminds me of the shift that could be seen between VMS curier A an B (although the amount of letters is almost twice):
The Bohairic shows 31 letters. The strange ‘9’ seems to be a captial khei or khay.
Wikipedia: The additional letter xai is Ⳉ ⳉ in Akhmimic and Ⳋ ⳋ in Bohairic, both for a velar fricative /x/. This does not tell me anything, but if we look closely to the bar of that letter it is small.
Coptic closed as candidate.
Coptic automated translation:
There are already dictionaries available online. An artificial translator is not going to work for Coptic for the following reasons.
1. Coptic does not have a lot of modern words. There is no universally acceptable word for email, internet, computer, etc. When someone wants the Coptic equivalent of these words, you’ll either get a blank or a Greek word, or some word that is not fully understandable. In other words, artificial translation works for modern languages, not archaic ones.
agglutinating language= (glue-ing together) is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words are formed by joining phonetically unchangeable affix morphemes to the stem. In agglutinative languages, each affix is a bound morpheme for one unit of meaning (such as “diminutive”, “past tense”, “plural”, etc.), instead of morphological modifications with internal changes of the root of the word, or changes in stress or tone. In an agglutinative language, stems do not change, affixes do not fuse with other affixes, and affixes do not change form conditioned by other affixes.
Circassia (Adyghe: Адыгэ Хэку, Russian: Черке́сия, Georgian: ჩერქეზეთი, Arabic: شيركاسيا) is a region and historical country in the North Caucasus and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea. It is the ancestral homeland of the Circassian people.
Languages are: Abaza, Abkhaz, Adyghe, Kabardian, Karachay-Balkar, Ossetic, Ubykh
The Turkish language is written in latin script, from left to right.
A very interesting letter is the “dottless i” because this resembles the dna-bar for the EVA letter i: they both begin with B-pos, followed by a (relative) small area of C and mid-pos (mirrored on those two). The difference can be seen on the Z-pos: the EVA has none.
Nevertheless i looked this up: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dotted_and_dotless_I)
Dotted and dotless “i” are used in several other writing systems for Turkic languages:
- Azerbaijani: The Azerbaijani Latin alphabet used in Azerbaijan is modeled after Turkish since 1991.
- Kazakh: The Kazakh alphabet as used in Kazakhstan is Cyrillic; however, several Romanization schemes exist. Dotted and dotless I, in addition to I with diaraesis (Ï) are employed in the Latin script versions of the Kazakh Wikipedia and of several governmental websites. The main website of the government of Kazakhstanand the national information agency KazInform-QazAqparat offer Turkish-like Latin script along with official Cyrillic one.
- Tatar: The Tatar alphabet in Russia is officially Cyrillic due to the requirements of Russian federal law. Several Romanization schemes exist, which are used on the Internet and some printed publication. Most of them are modelled in different ways on Turkish and employ dotted and dotless I, while some also use I with acute (Í), although for different phonemes. The only Latin alphabet that ever had official status in Tatarstan, Yañalif, used the character Ь instead of dotless i.
- Crimean Tatar: The Latin alphabet is officially used for the Crimean Tatar language and does use both dotted and dotless I letters. Cyrillic script is still used in daily life in theAutonomous Republic of Crimea, but is not the official script for the language.
- Tittle: the dot above “i” and “j” in most of the Latin scripts
- Yery (ы) — a letter used to represent [ɯ] in Turkic languages with Cyrillic script, and the similar [ɨ] in Russian.
Related letters and other similar characters:
- Ь ь : Cyrillic letter Soft sign
- І і : Cyrillic letter Dotted I
- И и : Cyrillic letter I
- Ъ ъ : Cyrillic letter Yer
- Ы ы : Cyrillic letter Yeru
Note: Read a tragic Turkish modern story due to this letter.
After the 10th century, Persian, alongside Arabic, was used for scientific, philosophical, historical, mathematical, musical, and medical works, as important Iranian writers such as Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Avicenna, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, Naser Khusraw and Biruni made contributions to Persian scientific writing.
In 1219–21 the Khwarezmian Empire suffered a devastating invasion by Genghis Khan‘s Mongol army. According to Steven R. Ward, “Mongol violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people.
The Safavid era peaked in the reign of the brilliant soldier, statesman and administrator Shah Abbas I (1587–1629), surpassing their Ottoman arch rivals in strength, and making the empire a leading hub in Western Eurasia for the sciences and arts. The Safavid era also saw the start of the creation of new layers in Persian society, composed of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Georgians,Circassians, Armenians, and other peoples of the Caucasus.
Since we mainly focus on the Armenian area, we seek information on that period Safavid (year 1500+) :
As can be seen left of the Caspian sea, Iranian land covered our sites of interest in Albania !
The languages during that period were Persian and Azerbeijani.
But, looking at the Persian writing, the dresses of the woman and the general Persian impression, i do not think the VMS has these Persian influences.
Having first appeared as a script in 1st century AD Assyria after being spoken there as an unwritten language for five centuries, Classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries,the classical language of Edessa, preserved in a large body of Syriac literature. Indeed, Syriac literature comprises roughly 90% of the extant Aramaic literature.
Disappeared as a vernacular language after the 14th century. (Referring to Middle or Old Syriac, not the contemporary dialects.)
.. written from right to left in a cursive style
…From the 7th century onwards, Syriac gradually gave way to Arabic as the spoken language of much of the region, excepting northern Iraq.
The Mongol invasions of the 13th century, and the religiously motivated massacres of Assyrian Christians by Tamurlane further contributed to the rapid decline of the language. In many places outside of northern Mesopotamia (the Assyrian homeland), even in liturgy, it was replaced by Arabic.
More on the old alphabet: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syriac_alphabet
On https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syriac_alphabet i found
“The West Syriac dialect is usually written in the Serṭā (ܣܶܪܛܳܐ, ‘line’) form of the alphabet, also known as the Pšīṭā (ܦܫܺܝܛܳܐ, ‘simple’), ‘Maronite’, or the ‘Jacobite’ script (although the term Jacobite is considered derogatory)”
Maronites are part of the Aramean nation that lived in Mesopotamia, the Aramean Crescent and especially the Levant (Phoenicians & Mount Lebanon) and Syria of today.
The Maronite word is derived from the monastery of Maroun, which was named after St. Maroun, a fifth century ascetic who lived in Syria of today. All who followed the faith of the monks of that monastery were called Maronites (Ad-Dibs 1905, Moosa 1986).
The Maronites were initially aided in their struggle against the Arabs by the Greeks and established their first state by the end of the 7th century and lasted until 1305 A.D. Later, they cooperated with the crusaders, being the only Aramean Christian community in the Middle East to do so; their homeland on Mount Lebanon was only conquered by the Muslims in 1305.
Before that period the Mount of Lebanon, the Aramean Maronites homeland was an independent area with about 95 % Aramean Christians and other Christians groups and the Maronites were the Majority among them, the establishment of greater Lebanon put the Christians in Lebanon and the Armean Maronites in an extremely difficult bloody wars trying to maintain and preserve their last presence in the Middle East.
Maronites have had Aramic Syriac as their sacred language since the beginning of their existence.
Aramaic Syriac began to decline as their spoken language, as it already had among other peoples of the Levant, although in a few places in Lebanon the language continued to be spoken until the 16th century (Fahed 1985, Ad-Dibs 1905). The Aramean Maronites tried to maintain the language, and although they started to pray in both Arabic and Aramaic Syriac around the 18th century, all the prayers, whether in Arabic or Aramaic Syriac, were written in the Aramaic Syriac script.
Aramean Maronites still live mainly in Lebanon, their ancestral homeland.
Like Arabic and Hebrew, Syriac is a Semitic language that has a consonantal writing system in which consonants are represented but vowels are frequently omitted. Like its Arabic counterpart, Syriac writing is cursive and is written from right to left; however, unlike the Arabic letters, which can have up to three different shapes depending on their positions (initial, medium, final), the Syriac letters, like the Hebrew letters, can have at most two different shapes depending on whether the letter is in final position or not. Like Hebrew, Syriac has 22 consonants
Global stuff http://www.aramaic-dem.org/English/Language/1.htm
Quick view on the language: http://www.aramaic-dem.org/English/Language/A%20birds%20eye%20view%20of%20the%20Syriac%20language%20and%20literature.pdf
According to Yona Sabar, a language professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, no more than 200,000 people worldwide use this language in their daily lives. The largest Aramaic-speaking community in the world today resides in Sweden — an anomaly attributable to steady Christian immigration from the Middle East during the past 100 years. It is this Swedish community that provides instructional materials to Aramaic students in Jish and to Beit Jala, a mostly Christian town on the West Bank where efforts to preserve and revive the language are also active. Read more: http://forward.com/news/israel/164127/maronite-christians-seek-to-revive-aramaic-languag/#ixzz3iPoA4C00
The people https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arameans
‘The Levant’ is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean. In its widest historical sense, the Levant included all of the eastern Mediterranean with its islands, that is, it included all of the countries along the eastern Mediterranean shores, extending from Greece to Cyrenaica. source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levant.
In the 13th and 14th centuries CE the term levante was used for Italian maritime commerce in the eastern Mediterranean, including Greece, Anatolia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt, that is, the lands east of Venice. Eventually the term was restricted to the Muslim countries of Syria-Palestine and Egypt. In 1581 England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire.
The name Levant States was used to refer to the French mandate over Syria and Lebanon after World War I. This is probably the reason why the term Levant has come to be used synonymously with Syria-Palestine. Some scholars misunderstood the term thinking that it derives from the name of Lebanon.
Here is an overview of the different alphabets
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD
Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects and the Aramaic language of the Talmud are written in the Hebrew alphabet.
Capital letters only after printing press was invented
These scripts look different but are basicly all the same:
Aramaic script, aramaic NT, aramaic peshitta, aramaic estrangelo, Biblical Aramaic, Syrisch Aramaic
(Esṭrangēlā Maḏnḥāyā Serṭā Aramaic script)
Syriac language dialects: Eastern and the Western(orthodox and Maronites)
2nd century: Palmyrene cursive writing > Estrangelo (Nestorian or Chaldean script)
Lebanon & Aramic Syriac=> West Syriac dialect => serta form = Psita = Maronite = Jacobite script
year 1200 > Serto / Serta (West Syrians and the Maronites)
Since the Hebrew writing seemed to difficult, Estrangelo was developed by Christians.
After that Serto developed. All the scripts are intrinsicly the same language.
Genesis or the book of Words have the same language dna (as expected).
Athanasius Kircher wrote ” Prodromus coptus sive aegyptiacus”, in 1636
his ‘Rythmus Syriacus cantu Jacobitico’ looks like Aramaic Serṭā
(I did not check the translation in Latin below)
Also other variants are listed: https://books.google.be/books?id=KnATAAAAQAAJ&hl=nl&pg=PA134#v=onepage&q&f=false
Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli. Their letters are equivalent, sharing the same names andalphabetical order and all three are unicameral (make no distinction between upper and lower case). Although each continues to be used, Mkhedruli (see below) is taken as the standard for Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages.
The scripts originally had 38 letters. Georgian is currently written in a 33-letter alphabet, as five of the letters are obsolete in that language. The Mingrelian alphabet uses 36: the 33 of Georgian, one letter obsolete for that language, and two additional letters specific to Mingrelian and Svan. That same obsolete letter, plus a letter borrowed from Greek,
There seem to be no similarities between Albanian and the VMS language dna.
The Elbasan alphabet was invented around the middle of the 18th century and named after the city of Elbasan in central Albania. It was used mainly in a document called the Elbasan Gospel Manuscript, or Anonimi i Elbasanit (The Anonymous of Elbasan) in Albanian, which was created at St Jovan Vladimir’s Church, published in 1761, and can now be found in the National Archives of Albania in Tiranë. source http://www.omniglot.com/writing/elbasan.htm
Text used is 30 chapters of Elbasan Gospel Manuscript 1761: http://www.elsie.de/pdf/articles/A1995ElbasanMs_Fig.pdf
The language of about 80-85% of all people in Uzbekistan speak Uzbek.
Officially the Uzbek Republic (Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. Uzbekistan’s economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and natural gas. Uzbekistan is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage for the 30 million inhabitants.
around 1400: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbekistan)
Timur initiated the last flowering of Transoxiana by gathering together numerous artisans and scholars from the vast lands he had conquered into his capital, Samarqand. By supporting such people, he imbued his empire with a rich Perso-Islamic culture. During his reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction masterpieces were undertaken in Samarqand and other population centres. Amir Timur initiated an exchange of medical discoveries and patronized physicians, scientists and artists from the neighbouring countries such as India;
His grandson Ulugh Beg was one of the world’s first great astronomers. It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of theChaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Transoxiana, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature.
The greatest Chaghataid writer, Ali-Shir Nava’i, was active in the city of Herat (now in northwestern Afghanistan) in the second half of the 15th century.
The text analyzed was: Kurdish (Kurmandji) Gospel of Mathew 2011 Latin script
Native language: to Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey
Native speakers: 20 million (2004–2009)
Indo-European/ Indo-Iranian/ Iranian/ Western/ Northwestern /Kurdish/ Kurmanji
See more info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurmanji_Kurdish
Now i need\ a sample opf a higher language family because:
The Indo-Iranian languages, also called Indo-Iranic languages, and known in older literature as Aryan languages, constitute the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family. It has more than 1 billion speakers stretching from the Caucasus (Ossetian) and Europe (Romani) eastward to Xinjiang (Sarikoli) and Assam (Assamese) and south to Maldives (Maldivian) and Fiji (Fiji Hindi), forming the majority of all Indo-European speakers. Ethnologue recognizes 313 Indo-Iranian languages, which make up over two-thirds of all Indo-European languages.
The Hebrew WLC is somewhat translatable by google, the OT version is not.
It seems there are 22 consonants, plus final letters and diacritics. I have many little characters up to 40 or 50 characters.
The apparent-empty-characters are not empty, but very tiny dots, also known as “vowel points or signs”, such as the Kamatz (highest occurrence in the OT version).
Reading this sounds promising:
Some letters (kaf, mem, nun, fe and tzadi) have a final form (sofit), which is used when they appear at the end of a word.
Let me try again by removing all the vowel points (only displaying one cause now the text are both alike)
is written from right to left. And is also read that way.
For example. ANAHITA آناهیتا
must be read from right to left. Then the most right l (alif) will be the a representant.
Languages written in Arabic script:
Arabic (Algerian), Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Lebanese), Arabic (Modern Standard), Arabic (Moroccan), Arabic (Syrian), Äynu, Azeri, Baluchi, Beja, Bosnian, Brahui, Chechen, Crimean Tatar, Dari, Gilaki, Hausa, Kabyle, Karakalpak, Konkani, Kashmiri, Kazakh, Khowar, Kurdish, Kyrgyz, Malay, Marwari, Mandekan, Mazandarani, Morisco, Pashto, Persian/Farsi, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Salar, Saraiki, Shabaki, Sindhi, Somali, Tatar, Tausūg, Turkish, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek
Some of these languages, such as Bosnian and Turkish, were once written with the Arabic alphabet, but nowadays are normally written with a different alphabet, such as Latin or Cyrillic.
There are more letters displayed (32) and not only the 28 letters. This is because i am not very familiar with the letters and am afraid of merging the wrong letters. For example ة is o with a diacritic.
So, this is the good image:
What is the difference between Persian and Arabic and is Persian the same as Farsi?
In order to represent non-Arabic sounds, new letters were created by adding dots, lines, and other shapes to existing letters. The Perso-Arabic script is abjad and is exclusively written cursively. That is, the majority of letters in a word connect to each other.
Although at first glance they may seem similar, there are many differences in the way the different languages use the alphabets. For example, similar words are written differently in Persian and Arabic, as they are used differently.
The Persian language has been written with a number of different scripts, including the Old Persian Cuneiform, Pahlavi, Aramaic, and Avestan, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. After the Islamic conquest of the Persian Sassanian Empire in 642 AD, Arabic became the language of government, culture and especially religion.
Conclusively, Persian on its own only distinguishesonly in the older version (<600 AC). For now analyzing Arabic language in general and some or more variants would give me a proper image of the languages.
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