Armenia and features


First about the fonts: You probably need no extra  fonts.

For chrome in Windows 10 there might be a slight problem: solution here

But, if you need fonts:


dec. 2014

I have made many language evaluations but never found more interesting details than in the Armenian language and in the history and culture of this country.


Looking for a script that has a heritage in the region: Italy or countries at that border, Greece or countries at that border.


During the Kingdom of Silicia (ca. 1199-1375) the country was hugely stretched towards the coast to the left (Greece and Cyprus now Turkey and Syria).

History Timeline:

Latest news & discoveries :  go to

A documentary video on the genocide of Greecs, Armenians, Assyrians  (1914-1923) performed by the Turks:

Year Date Event
1335 The decline of Mongol power leads Armenia to be dominated once again by Anatolian Turkoman tribes such as the Chobanids. (to 1400)
1375 Fall of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia to the Mameluks of Egypt and their Ramadanid vassals.
1400 Tamerlane‘s devastating invasion of Georgia, Armenia and Central Anatolia leads to the slaughter of large portions of the population of Armenia and the enslavement of over 60,000 people from Anatolia and the Caucasus.

Timur (Persian: تیمورTimūr, Chagatai: Temür, Uzbek: Temur; d. 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane[1] (Persian: تيمور لنگTimūr(-e) Lang, “Timur the Lame”), was a Turko-Mongolconqueror and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia

ak koyunlu source:

year 1378–1501

Language: Armenian



kara koyunlu The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans (Persian: Qara Qoyunlu, قرا قویونلو), were a Shia[4] Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia (1406), north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.

Languages: Oghuz, Arabic,Persian, Armenian,Kurdish


Year Date Event
1405 After Tamerlane‘s death, Anatolia becomes a battleground between the rival tribal confederations of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu.
1461 Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople established by then the Ottoman Emperor, Mehmed II.
1478 Armenian migration to Bruges, Belgium.

16th century

Year Date Event
1502 The fanatical Shi’ite Safavid Dynasty is established in Persia, that conquers Armenia.
1512 Printing of first Armenian books.
1514 The ferocious Ottoman Safavid wars rage in the Armenian Highlands, the Ottomans gain Western Armenia.
1519 Decree of King Sigismund I that Armenians in Poland by governed under code of laws by Mkhitar Gosh.
The first Jelali revolts; clashes between Sunnite Turks and Kurds and Shi’ite Qizilbash cause friction in Eastern Anatolia. (to 1528)
1520 Large portions of Armenia are conquered by Selim I.
1532 The second series of OttomanPersian wars rage in Armenia (to 1555). Armenia is split in two between the two powers.
1567 Establishment of Armenian printing press in Constantinople.
1598 Continuation of the devastating Jelali revolts in Anatolia. (to 1611)

For a view on the different politic groups, countries and etnicities have a look at this page


Wheel of eternity video



(Հայաստան Hayastan)

The country is surrounded by Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Iran.

More info:

In size about 70% of the area of the country the Netherlands.
Inhabitants: about 3+ million.

The high mountain peaks are:

Aragats – 4090 meters above sea level

Kaputjugh – 3906 meters above sea level

Azdahak – 3598 meters above sea level

Spitakasar – 3555 meters above sea level

Vardenis – 3522 meters above sea level


The Principle Rivers of Armenia are:

Araks – 158km in the territory of Armenia (total length – 1072km)

Akhuryan – 186km in the territory of Armenia

Vorotan – 119km in the territory of Armenia (total length – 179km)

Debed – 152km in the territory of Armenia (total length – 178km)

Hrazdan – 141km in the territory of Armenia

Aghstev – 99km in the territory of Armenia (total length – 133km)


The Principle Lakes of Armenia are:


Lake Sevan with an area of 1239 square km and  found 1898 meters above sea level

Lake Arpi with an area of 22 square km and found 2025 meters above sea level

Lake Akna with an area of 0.53 square km and found 3030 meters above sea level

Lake Sev with an area of 2.0 square km and found 2666 meters above sea level


The Political Structure of Armenia:

The Republic of Armenia  is an independent, democratic, social and legal entity.

The President of the Republic is its Head of State empowered with the greatest of authorities.

The President of the Republic of Armenia is the guarantor of the country’s independence and territorial integrity and security.The Prime Minister is the Head of Government.The members of the National Assembly make up the Supreme Legislative Body.

The Capital City is Yerevan.The Monetary Unit is the Armenian Dram.

The State Religion is Christianity (Armenian Orthodox)


 Newroz or Nawroz[1] (Kurdish: نه‌ورۆز/Newroz/Nawroz, also: Gulus[2] Kurdish: گوڵوس) refers to the celebration of the traditional Iranian new year holiday of Newroz in Kurdish society. In Kurdish legend, the holiday celebrates the deliverance of the Kurds from a tyrant, and it is seen as another way of demonstrating support for the Kurdish cause.[3][4][5][6][7][8] The celebration coincides with theNorthward equinox which falls mainly on 21 March[9] and the festival is held usually between 18 and 24 March. The festival currently has an important place in the terms of Kurdish identity for the majority of Kurds, mostly in Turkey and Syria.[3][4][5][7] Though celebrations vary, people generally gather together to welcome the coming of spring; people wear coloured clothes and dance together


Vishaps (Vishapakar Վիշապաքար)

“Dragon stones” (Arm. vishapakar) are stelae carved with animal imagery found in the high-altitude summer pastures of modern Armenia and neighboring regions (Javakheti/Trialeti, Nakhijevan, Erzurum/Kars). Evidently, the dragon stones are highly symbolic artifacts. Their name may be connected to local folk tales where dragons are monstrous giants living in the mountains or, perhaps, it may be due to a misunderstanding of the imagery carved on them.

Read more: Vishapakars/Dragon Stones: High-Altitude Monuments in Armenia and Problem of Their Protection




armenian language bigmap

(above picture showes the classical alphabet)

capital lower nr classical
Ա A ա a 1 a a a
Բ B բ b 2 b b p
Գ G գ g 3 g g k
Դ D դ d 4 d d t
Ե E ե e 5 e e, ye e, ye
Զ Z զ z 6 z z z
Է Ē է ē 7 ei e e
Ը Ə ը ə 8 u ə ə
Թ Tʿ թ tʿ 9 t t’ t’
Ժ Ž ժ ž 10 g jh jh
Ի I ի i 20 ee i i
Լ L լ l 30 l l l
Խ X խ x 40 ch kh kh
Ծ C ծ c 50 t’s ts dz
Կ K կ k 60 k k g
Հ H հ h 70 h h h
Ձ J ձ j 80 ds dz ts
Ղ Ł ղ ł 90 ll gh gh
Ճ Č ճ č 100 tch ch j
Մ M մ m 200 m m m
Յ Y յ y 300 y y h
Ն N ն n 400 n n n
Շ Š շ š 500 sh sh sh
Ո O ո o 600 oa o, vo o, vo
Չ Č չ ʿ 700 tch ch’ ch’
Պ P պ p 800 p p b
Ջ J ջ ǰ 900 j j ch
Ռ R ռ ̇ 1000 r rr rr
Ս S ս s 2000 sh s s
Վ V վ v 3000 v v v
Տ T տ t 4000 t t d
Ր R ր r 5000 r r r
Ց Cʿ ց cʿ 6000 ts ts’ ts’
Ւ W ւ w 7000 w u v
Փ Pʿ փ pʿ 8000 p p’ p’
Ք Kʿ ք kʿ 9000 k, q k’ k’
և ևվ yev, ev yev, ev
Օ օ o o o
Ֆ ֆ f f f


For Letters per sound, Different in Eastern Western see:


Greek and Syriac were the languages of the Armenian Apostolic Church from the day of its creation (301 AD) to 405 AD, when Mesrop Mashtots invented the Armenian alphabet

Armenian joined the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in 2001, which protects the languages of the minorities: Assyrian, Greek, Russian and Kurdish/Yezidi.

Other foreign languages common in Armenia include French, German, Italian, Spanish, Persian








Numbers and calender

De Armeense kalender is de traditionele kalender in Armenië en gebruikt Armeense cijfers. Hij begint in 552 n.Chr. als het begin van het Armeense tijdperk.

Datums worden aangeduid door de letters ԹՎ of andere, vaak met een streepje erboven, wat wil zeggen “t’vin” (“in het jaar”) gevolgd door een tot vier letters van het Armeens alfabet, waarvan elk voor een Armeens cijfer staat. Om het in standaard jaren te vertalen, tel 551 bij het nummer op. Dus als je een insciptie ziet die luidt : ԹՎ ՈՀԳ, kijk in de tabel hieronder en zie dat dit gelijk is aan 600 +70 + 3 + 551 = het jaar 1224.

The Armenian calendar is the traditional calendar of Armenia. It was used in Old Armenia during the time before the arrival of Christianity. It is a solar calendar based on the same system as the ancient Egyptian model, having an invariant 365-day year with no leap year rule. As a result, the correspondence between it and the Julian calendar slowly changes over time (such as year 769 on AD 1320 January 1, year 770 on AD 1320 December 31, and year 1032 on AD 1582 October 27 = Gregorian November 6). Some references report that the first month of the year, Navasard, corresponds to the start of Spring in the northern hemisphere, but that was only true from the 9th through 10th centuries.

Armenian year 1461 (Gregorian year 2010–2011) is the last of the great Armenian cycle of 1,461 wandering years which equal 1,460 Julian years (see Sothic cycle). The next year, 1462, begins on 24 July 2012 (Gregorian), 11 July (Julian). Armenian year 1 began on 11 July AD 552 (Julian).

The ancient Armenian year consisted of 12 months of 30 days each, plus a 13th month called epagomenê containing 5 days in a regular year, or 6 days in a leap year.[citation needed]

Years are given in the Armenian alphabet by the letters ԹՎ, a siglum for t’vin “in the year” followed by the year in Armenian numerals. For example, “in the year 1455” would be written ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ.

Armenian Phonetic numeral
Ա ayb 1
Բ ben 2
Գ gim 3
Դ da 4
Ե ech 5
Զ za 6
Է eh 7
Ը et 8
Թ to 9
Ժ zhe 10
Ի ini 20
Լ liwn 30
Խ xeh 40

Cardinal Numbers

# Armenian Transliteration
Eastern Western
0 զրո zeroh zeroh
1 մեկ mek meg
2 երկու yerkoo yergoo
3 երեք yerek yerek
4 չորս chorss chorss
5 հինգ hing hink
6 վեց vets vets
7 յոթ yote yote
8 ութ oot oot
9 ինը eenë eenë
10 տասը tahssë dahssë
11 տասնմեկ tassnehmek dassnemeg
12 տասներկու tassneyerkoo dassneyergoo
20 քսան k’san k’san
30 երեսուն yeressoon yeressoon
40 քառասուն karrassoon karrassoon
50 հիսուն heessoon heessoon
60 վաթսուն vatsoon vatsoon
70 յոթանասուն yotanassoon yotanassoon
80 ութսուն ootsoon ootsoon
90 իննսուն eenasoon een’soon
100 հարյուր haryoor haryoor
200 երկու հարյուր yerkoo hyeroor yergoo hyeroor
1000 հազար hazar hazar

Ordinal Numbers

English Armenian Transliteration
Eastern Western
first առաջին arracheen arracheen
second երկրորդ yerkrord yergrort
third երրորդ yerord yerort
fourth չորրորդ chorord chorort
fifth հինգերորդ hingyerord hinkyerort
sixth վեցերորդ vetsyerord vetsyerort
seventh յոթերորդ yoteyerord yoteyerort


English Armenian Transliteration
Eastern Western
month ամիս ameess ameess
year տարի taree daree
January Յունվար Hoonvar Hoonvar
February Փետրուար Petervar Pedervar
March Մարտ Mart Mard
April Ապրիլ Apreel Abreel
May Մայիս My-eess My-eess
June Յունիս Hooneess Hooneess
July Յուլիս Hooleess Hooleess
August Օգոստոս Ogostos Okosdos
September Սեպտեմբեր September Sebdemper
October Հոկտեմբեր Hoktember Hogdemper
November Նոյեմբեր Noyember Noyemper
December Դեկտեմբեր Dektember Tegdempe

see for full list:

OLD Armenian month names are in a genitive form (governed by amis):‘(month) of (the) x’. for example նաւասարդ-ի /nawasard-i/ ‘(month) of the New Year’, amseannnawasardi ‘month of Nawasard’ borrowed from Perso-Aryan *naṷasard-a-.

I. նաւասարդ-ի /nawasard-i
II. հոռի /hoṙ-i
III. սահմի /sahm-i
IV. տրէ /trē
V. քաղոց /kʿało-cʿ
VI. արաց /ara-cʿ
VII. մեհեկան-ի /mehekan-i
VIII. արեգ /areg
IX. ահեկան-ի /ahekan-i

Names of the days in a months

The Armenian calendar names the days of the month instead of numbering them:

# Name Meaning/derivation
1 Areg sun
2 Hrand
3 Aram
4 Margar prophet
5 Ahrank’ half-burned
6 Mazdeł
7 Astłik Venus
8 Mihr Mithra
9 Jopaber
10 Murç triumph
11 Erezhan hermit
12 Ani
13 Parxar
14 Vanat
15 Aramazd Ahura Mazda
16 Mani beginning
17 Asak beginningless
18 Masis Mount Ararat
19 Anahit Anahita
20 Aragats Mount Aragats
21 Gorgor
22 Kordi
the Kurds
23 Cmak east wind
24 Lusnak half-moon
25 C̣rōn dispersion
26 Npat Apam Napat
27 Vahagn Zoroastrian Vahrām ; Avestan Verethragna, name of the 20th day
28 Sēin mountain
29 Varag
30 Gišeravar evening star
The epagomenal days are called Aveleacʿ (“superfluous”).


OLD:  source: Armenian Calendar Tōmar Hayocʿ


Like the Perso-Aryan system of day-names, the Armenians named
the days of their month; each month has 30 days. Here is the list of
the day names as given by Ł. Ališan in his Ancient faith or the Pagan
Religion of the Armenians:

1. Արեգ  /areg/ ‘of the sun’.
2. Հրանդ /hrand/
3. Արամ /aram/, name of a legendary hero.
4. Մարգար /margar/
5. Ահրանք /ahrankʿ/
6. Մազդեղ /mazdeł/ or Մազթեղ /maztʿeł/

7. Աստղիկ / astłik / name of a Goddess (there was a temple
in Armenia, called the House of Aramazd and Astłik,  and also one of the names of the planet Venus/ the morning star.

8. Միհր /mihr/ ‘Mithra’. Pers. mihr (Av. miθrahe) is the
sixteenth day of the Pārsīg month.

9. Ձոպաբեր /jopaber/ or Խռովաբեր /xṙovaber/

10. Մուրց /murcʿ/
11. Երեզկան /erezkan/ or Երեզհան /erezhan/
12. Անի /ani/ name of the Armenian Arsacid necropolis.
13. Պարխար /parxar/
14. Վանատ /vanat/
15. Արամազդ /aramazd/  The fifteenth day of the Avesta calendar is called daθušō ahurahe mazdå (Pers. day-pedmihr).

16. Մանի /mani/
17. Ասակ /asak/
18. Մասիս /masis/
19. Անահիտ /anahit/ Goddess.  In the Persian calendar, Anāhīd is neither the name of a month nor that of a day.
20. Արագած /aragac/ name of a mountain in Armenia.

21. Գրգոռ /grgoṙ/ or Գորգոր /gorgor/ name of a mountain in Armenia.
22. Կորդուիք /korduikʿ/ or Կորդի /kordi/ name of a district in Armenia.
23. Ծմակ /cmak/ a place /name in Armenia.
24. Լուսնակ /lusnak/



days of the week

Armenians like Greeks and Romans named the days of the week after

OLD: source: Armenian Calendar Tōmar Hayocʿ

The epagomenal days are sometimes named after the five
“wandering stars”:
1. Փայլածու /pʿaylažu/ ‘Mercury’
2. Արուսյակ /arusyak/ ‘Venus’
3. Հրատ /hrat/ ‘Mars’
4. Լուսնթագ /lusntʿag/ ‘Jupiter’
5. Երևւակ /erewak/ ‘Saturn’
OLD  names of weekdays source: Armenian Calendar Tōmar Hayocʿ)

The “ancient” Armenians associated the “planets” with a cycle of
seven days:

արեգակ /aregak/ ‘Sun’ for Sunday;
լուսին /lusin/ ‘Moon’ for Monday;
հրատ /hrat/ ‘Mars’ for Tuesday;
փայլաժու /pʿaylažu/ ‘Mercury’ for Wednesday;
լւսնթագ /lusntʿag/ ‘Jupiter’ for Thursday;
լուսաբեր /lusaber/ ‘Morning-star’ for Friday;
երևւակ /erewak/ ‘Saturn’ for Saturday.



The Christian Armenians took over the seven-day week from the
early Christians or their masters the Jews.

Armenian šabatʿ, like Hebrew šbt, means ‘week’ and ‘Sabbath, Saturday’.

կիրակի օր /kiraki ōr/ ‘Sunday’ ,  միաշաբաթի /miašabatʿi/ ‘first after Sabbath’;

երկուշաբթի /erkušabatʿi/ ‘second after Sabbath, Monday’;
երեքշաբթի /erekʿšabatʿi/ ‘Tuesday’

չորեքշաբթի /čʿorekʿšabatʿi/ ‘Wednesday’
հինգշաբթի /hingšabatʿi/ ‘Thursday’
ուրբաթ /urbatʿ/ ‘Friday’
շաբաթ /šabatʿi/ ‘Saturday’



English Armenian Transliteration
Eastern Western
day օր or or
today այսօր ayss (ice) or ayss (ice) or
yesterday երեկ yerek yereg
day before yesterday երեկ չէ մյուս օրը yerek che myooss oreh yereg che myooss oreh
tomorrow վաղը vagheh vagheh
day after tomorrow վաղը չէ մյուս օրը vagheh che myooss oreh vagheh che myooss oreh
week շաբաթ shabat shapat
weekend շափաթաւերջ shapataverch shapataverch
Sunday կիրակի օր kiraki or giragi or
Monday երկուշաբթի yerkooshabti yergooshapti
Tuesday երեքշաբթի օր yerekshabti yerekshapti
Wednesday չորեքշաբթի chorekshabti chorekshapti
Thursday հինգշաբթի hingshabti hinkshapti
Friday ուրբաթ oorbat oorpat
Saturday շաբաթ shabat shapat

Hours of the day

24 hours of the day also had their sepparate names.

Nighttime hours         Daytime hours

1. Khavarakann        13. Aygn 

 2. Aghjamughjn        14. Tsaygn  

 3. Mtatsyaln            15. Zoratsyaln     

 4. Shaghavotn         16. Tscharagaytyaln          

 5. Kamavotn            17. Sharavighyaln    

 6. Bavakann            18. Yerkratesn   

 7. Havtapyaln          19. Shantakaln     

 8. Gizkan                20. Hrakatn          

 9. Lusatschemn        21. Hourtapyaln  

 10. Aravotn              22. Toghantyaln  

 11. Lusapayln           23. Aravarn         

 12. Paylatsumn          24. Arpoghn 


OLD: source: Armenian Calendar Tōmar Hayocʿ

The morning epoch is the Armenian calendric norm, that is, the
days are reckoned from the sunrise. The days and nights are divided in
four parts of three hours, respectively.

The night consists of four
watches, each of three equal intervals or hours, and of unequal
length, depending on the season.

The first watches of the night
commences at 6 p. m. The daytime is divided into 12 hours, from
sunrise to sunset. It is marked into four Hours59, and is designated as
the First Hour of day commencing at 6 a. m., the Third Hour of day at 9
a. m., the Sixth Hour of day at midday, and the Ninth Hour of day at 3
p. m. Only at the equinoxes are these hours of day and night equal.

The four Hours of the daytime are:
1. արշալոյս /aršaloys/ ‘aurora’, or այգ /ayg/ ‘daybreak’, or
լուսադէմ/lusadēm/ ‘dawn’;
2. առաւօտ /aṙawōt/ ‘morning’;
3. միջօրեայ /miǰōreay/ ‘midday, noon’ (միջօրէ /miǰōrē/ ‘at
noon’), or հասարակ-օր /hasarak-ōr/
4. երեկ(ոյ) /erek(oy)/ ‘evening’, or արեւմուտք /arewmutkʿ/ ‘sun

The four Watches of the night are:
1. արաջին պահ /araǰin pah/ ‘first watch’;
2. գիշեր /gišer/ ‘night’;
3. հասարակ-գիշեր /hasarak-gišer/ ‘midnight’;
4. հաւախօս /hawaxōs/ ‘cock-crowing; day-break’.

The twelve hours of the day have appropriate names indicating
varying degrees of light from the hour of daybreak to sunset61:
1. այգ /ayg/ commences at 6 a. m.
2. ծայգ /tsayg/ commences at  7 a. m.
3. զայրացեալ /zayracʿeal/ 8 a. m.
4. ճառագայթեալ /čaṙagaytʿeal/ 9 a. m.
5. շառաւիղեալ /šaṙawiłeal/ 10 a. m. (Շառավիղյալ)
6. երկրատես /erkrates/ 11 a. m.
7. շանթակող /šantʿakoł/ midday
8. հրակաթ /hrakatʿ/ 1 p. m.
9. հուր փայլեալ /hur pʿayleal/ 2 p. m.
10. թաղանթեալ /tʿałantʿeal/ 3 p. m.
11. արագոտ /aragot/ 4 p. m.
12. արփող /arpʿoł/ 5 p. m.

The names of the hours of the night, indicating degrees of darkness,
from sunset to sunrise, are thus:
1. խաւարակ /xawarak/ commences at 6 p. m.
2. աղջամուղջ /ałǰamułǰ/ 7 p. m.
3. մթացեալ /mtʿacʿeal/ 8 p. m.
4. շաղաւօտ /šaławot/ 9 p. m.
5. կամաւօտ /kamawōt/ 10 p. m.
6. բաւական /bawakan/ 11 p. m.
7. խօթափեալ /xōtʿapʿeal/ midnight
8. գիզակ /gizak/ 1 a. m.
9. լուսածեմ /lusatsem/ 2 a. m.
10. առաւօտ /aṙawōt/ 3 a. m.
11. լուափայլ /lusapʿayl/ 4 a. m.
12. փայլածու /pʿaylatsu/ 5 a. m.



Current names:



OLD names: source: Armenian Calendar Tōmar Hayocʿ)

Գարուն /garun/ ‘spring’5

Ամառն /amaṙn/ ‘summer’6
Աշուն /ašun/ ‘fall, autumn’7
Ձմեռն /jmeṙn/ ‘winter’8

The Armanian language

has different phonetic values.

After the creation of the alphabet around 300 AD, there were different versions of orthography:

classical Armenian orthography (Armenian: Հայերէնի դասական ուղղագրութիւն (in classical) and Հայերենի դասական ուղղագրություն in reformed,
Hayereni dasakan ughagrutyun
; also known as traditional orthography and Mashtotsian orthography) is the orthography developed during the early 19th century for the Armenian language.
Today, it is used primarily by the Armenian diaspora (including all Western Armenian speakers and Eastern Armenian speakers in Iran), which has rejected the Armenian orthography reform in Soviet Armenia in the 1920s. The Armenian diaspora, some linguists and politicians allege political motives behind the reform.

An orthography reform of the Armenian alphabet was conducted between 1922 and 1924 in Soviet Armenia. It was rejected by Armenian diaspora communities, which for the most part speak Western Armenian and continue to use the Classical Armenian orthography. Although it is barely practiced outside of Armenia and the Post-Soviet states (namely Georgia and Russia), it is the official orthography used in the Republic of Armenia.

There are 3 language types:

  • classical = traditional =(HAYKAZEAN) Hayereni dasakan ughagrutyun = Mashtotsian
  • reformed= official = Eastern 1922 Sovjet reform = romanization of classical
  • western = language spoken by expats (see


converter and dictionary:

armenian to Latin (phonetic) conversion:

Armenian tools such as etymology:


The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts (Armenian: Մեսրոպ Մաշտոցի անվան հին ձեռագրերի ինստիտուտ (Mesrop Mashtots’i anvan hin dzeragreri institut)), commonly referred to as the Matenadaran (Armenian:  Մատենադարան), is a repository of ancient manuscripts, research institute and museum in Yerevan, Armenia. It holds one of the world’s richest depositories of medieval manuscripts and books which span a broad range of subjects, including history, philosophy, medicine, literature, art history and cosmography in Armenian and many other languages.

(note: it seems they do not respond to e-mails in English)


Some illuminated scripts can be found but they are very small.


And my eye fell on the curls and the ending of a word with a ‘9’.

Other aspects (such as a lot of ‘t’ letters and the occurences of two ‘9’-s in the middle of a word were not really appealing, with the VMS characteristics in mind.
Another document from the period 1619-1635 does not have those curls:

armenian document 1619-1635 item polona 13306353


Following the symbol of eternity (see f68r) the intesting corresponding symbols of gods/goddesses are:

Anahit (Armenian: Անահիտ) was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology.[1] In early periods she was the goddess of war. By the 5th century BC she was the main deity in Armenia along with Aramazd.[2]


Hayk (Armenian: Հայկ) or Hayg, also known as Haik Nahapet (Հայկ Նահապետ, Hayk the Tribal Chief) is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation. His story is told in the History of Armeniaattributed to the Armenian historian Moses of Chorene (410 to 490)


See f73v. or

for more thoughts on sagittarius.



 Woman tradional garments:   and

some screenshots

arme_women4 arme_women3 arme_women2 arme_women

and some typical hand-jewels:

arme_hand2 arme_hand1

Armenian Mathematican Anania of Sirak

Anania Shirakatsi (Armenian: Անանիա Շիրակացի ,
Armenian pronunciation: [ɑnɑˈnjɑ ʃiɾɑkɑˈt͡sʰi], also known as Ananias of Shirak; 610–685 AD) was an Armenian mathematician, astronomer and geographer.

source or wiki in Armenian.

Here, I would like to refer to the page on ‘twirl’

Eight phases of the moon corresponding to the Lunar gravitation.
By 7th century Armenian Mathematican Anania of Sirak

twirl anania of sirak2

I requested a readable copy from

Անանիա Շիրակացու Լուսնի պարբերաշրջանները = Таблицы лунного круга / տպագրության պատրաստեց Պրոֆ. Ա.Գ. Աբրահամյան.
Anania Shirakatsʿu Lusni parberashrjannerě = Tablit︠s︡y lunnogo kruga / tpagrutʿyan patrastetsʿ Prof. A.G. Abrahamyan.  Title: Anania Shirakatsʿu Lusni parberashrjannerě = Tablit︠s︡y lunnogo kruga / tpagrutʿyan patrastetsʿ Prof. A.G. Abrahamyan.  Anania Shirakatsʿi, active 685  Contributor: Աբրահամյան, Ա. Գ. (Աշոտ Գարեգինի), 1902- ;  A. G Abrahamyan (Ashot Garegini), 1903-1983  UIN: BLL01012848669

and got it from the British library. I translated some words and it seems the text has no direct relation with the VMS.


Ashkharatsuyts (Աշխարհացոյց (traditional); Աշխարհացույց (reformed)), often translated as Geography in English sources, is an early Medieval Armenian illustrated book by Anania Shirakatsi. It is about the geography of Armenia, Georgia, Caucasian Albania, Iran, Mesopotamia, etc. “Ashkharatsuyts” is the oldest book in Matenadaran on geography.[1]

Anania Shirakatsi (Armenian: Անանիա Շիրակացի , Armenian pronunciation: [ɑnɑˈnjɑ ʃiɾɑkɑˈt͡sʰi], also known as Ananias of Shirak; 610–685 AD) was an Armenian mathematician, astronomer andgeographer. Historian Robert H. Hewsen describes him as “Armenia’s First Scientist”.[1] He is commonly attributed to having written Ashkharatsuyts (Geography).

Strangly enough, i can not find the digitized document on-line. Not even when search on Աշխարհացոյց

He made also this drawing:

twirl anania of sirak


Among Shirakatsi’s works the most important one is considered “Knnikon”, which contains “Easter Speech”, “Christmas Speech” and “Chronicle” including synchronized spatial tables of changeable and fixed calendars for 532 years. In them in separate graphs month counts of new years, spring equinox, 7-days, important Christian holidays of all years of a certain cycle of both changeable and fixed calendars are written. On the basis of these synchronized tables any Christian holiday date can be clearly defined.

Among Shirakatsi’s calendaric works an important one is “Patchen Tomari”, which is of great value not only on the history of Armenian Calendars but also on the calendars of neighbor nations: such as Egyptians, Jews, Syrians, Persians, Romans, Georgians, Macedonians and others.

In this work a calendar is included, which has a close relation with other calendar systems.

Shirakatsi formed a large number of tables and calendar cycles. Among the tables more attractive ones are “Tables of Lunar Cycle” where the exact date of new moon and full moon of the nineteenth-year cycle is given, i.e. the year, the day and the time (in hours and minutes) of new moon and full moon occurring is discovered.

And as the nineteenth-year phases of the moon are always repeated then all these tables can be used all the time. Out of Shirakatsi’s calendar cycles the most valuable is so called “Special cycle”, where the monthly movement of the moon through the phases is given, “Orbital Cycle”, where the movement of the moon in the Sun orbit is shown and another astronomical cycle under the name “Shade indicator”, where the duration of the light and the dark at nights of the lunar month are defined.

Shirakatsi’s works on Cosmography are of great value. The basic questions on Exact Sciences are included in it. These works give us an opportunity to learn about his views on Exact Sciences.
Following antique scientists Shirakatsi thinks that the perceptible world and all its substances
consist of the four really existing elements: land, water, air and fire. In his opinion the world is “a certain composition of mixed elements”.
Shirakatsi imagines the nature in the process of movement and change. The existing old education decomposes with the time and instead a new one occurs. On the basis of many examples from real life considered as a proof of it he comes to the following philosophic scientific conclusion.
“Existence is the beginning of extinction and the extinction is in its turn is the start of existence and as a result of this non-harmful contradiction the world continues to exist.
Shiraktsi’s point of view on Cosmography is also significant. The question related to the earth
shape interested the humankind for a long time. Various approaches were expressed in different time periods. In his cosmographic works Shirakatsi gives a peculiar explanation: “I think the earth is of an egg-shaped form, he writes, the ball-shaped yolk is in the middle, white is around it and the shell surrounds everything; the same way the earth is in the centre like the yolk, air is around it like the white and the sky surrounds everything like the shell.
Shirakatsi’s astronomical system is not heliocentric but geocentric.

Accepting the egg-shape of the Earth it was important to explain the issue of earth balance. This question was of great interest since the ancient times and different opinions were made; some people thought that the earth lay on a gigantic elephant, others considered that it lay on a huge whale, on seas, etc. Shirakatsi gives a very original explanation to this question. He finds that it is balanced by two opposite forces and he writes: “The Earth tends to go down with all its weight and the wind tries to raise it up with all of its power. That’s why the earth doesn’t fall down and the wind doesn’t raise it up”.
In his cosmographic work Shirakatsi tells about the Galaxy (the Milky Way) and tries to explain its main point. Criticizing all the legends of his time he gives a scientific explanation concerning that issue. According to him the Galaxy is the same as “the mass of densely possessed and weakly shining stars”.
Shirakatsi absolutely rejects conservative scientists’ points of view. Among them there are church priests who think that the moon has its own light. He finds that the moon doesn’t have its own light and obtains light from the Sun which reflects the light of the ether like a mirror. According to him it is related to the reflection of sunlight and the change of lunar phases. The sun is in the fifth zone of the sky, and the moon is in the 4th one. Therefore, the moon obtains the light from above, and as the sun and the moon are in perpetual motion round the earth at different speed they either approach or move away. During the period when the sun approaches the moon, its light cycle begins to diminish and in case of moving away it begins to enlarge.
Shirakatsi explains high and low tide of the oceans and seas by changes of lunar phases: during the full moon water level in the oceans and seas begins to rise and when diminishing to fall. In his cosmographic work Shirakatsi discusses also the solar and the lunar eclipses. According to him the solar eclipse occurs when the sun is in the northern hemisphere, and the Moon in the southern, the earth is between them and hiders the light penetration to the Moon then the lunar eclipse occurs. In the cosmographic work Shirakatsi criticizes Chaldean astrologists who assures that the fate of the people happy and unhappy, kind and unkind, rich and poor depends on the star under which
they were born. Shirakatsi considers such scientists’ statements nonsense and names them

In his works Shirakatsi also touches upon other issues concerning the natural phenomena: light and sound speed, causes of the rain, snow, thunder, lightning, springs, etc.
One of his valuable works is “Ashkharhatsuyts” (“Geography”), which includes the description of all the countries in the world discovered at that time. That is a great work in the World Geographical and Cartographical literature of that time. “Ashkharhatsuyts” consists of Introduction and two parts.
In the introduction Shirakatsi determines the zones and temperature of the Earth defining the
points of view existing in the science. In the first part he gives a general description of the Earth and in the second part there is a description of different countries known at that time. In the main part of “Ashkharhatsuyts” is the description of all the countries in the three continents known then: they are Europe, Africa and Asia. Here the author defines the boundaries of each described country, distinguishes the rivers, mountains and towns, etc.
Metrological works of Anania Shirakatsi are also of great interest: “about the length measures” and “about the weight measures”. His metrological works contain the basic measurements and concepts existing in Armenia then. It is notable that in the 7th century Armenia was an important center of Foreign International trade. Probably Armenian merchants needed some information book containing information about different nations, particularly Persian and Byzantine nations.
And Shirakatsi as it is known took the responsibility to form measurements and conceptions of his time and conscientiously realized it.
An important source on economic life of historical Armenia is Shirakatsi’s “Mghonachap”, where the ways of camel cades, which crossed Armenia in the 6-7th centuries are depicted.
Shirakatsi has also a little text referring to precious stones. He enumerates 33 various precious stones noting the colors and distinguishing characteristics of each.
Some historical evidence having a great value on socio-economic history of Armenia and
neighboring countries is given in “Chronology”. It begins with the part including ancient times taken from Movses Khorenatsi’s sources. One of the original and important parts of “Chronology” is the chronics of the kings of Sasanyan Persia, which begins with the period when the king Artashes Sasanid ruled and it is over with the king Khosrov, the son of Vormizd. The last part of “Chronology” is chronics of Roman and Buzantine emperors beginning with Julius Ceasar and ending in days of Justinian II (in 681).
Lilit Nazaryan, Lecturer, Department of Geology, YSU

Alfabetum Armenium

Bishop Gregorius, 1632.  Property of ?

arm_alf1 arm_alf2arm_alf3  arm_alf15

Bibliotheca apostolica vaticana a Sixto V. Pont. Max. in splendidiorem

pag 156


source (online book:


alf_p136 armemiam_linguam_alpha


Interesting places with respect to the VMS

Ani   (place)  Currently part of Turkey.

Read the page on the rosette for more information.


Jugha (place)

scribe Sargis (1286)

Hin Jugha and the destruction in 2005 with bulldozers by Azeri (azerbejian) for photo’s google on those terms. read more:

Incipit Page to the Gospel of John
, 1300–1310
From a gospel book attributed to the illuminator Sargis; scribe unknown
Armenian; Probably from Siwnik’, Noravank’
Vellum, pigments, and gold; 12 1/2 x 9 3/8 in. (31.7 x 23.7 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1938 (38.171.2)

History of cities:


2. White bryony – Bryonia alba L. and black bryony – Tamus communis L. (Yerevan, Mashtots Matenadaran, codex 6594, end of 17th c.)


3. The first page of “Galen’s Dictionary”(Yerevan, Mashtots Matenadaran, codex 266, 1468, Amirdovlat Amasiatsi’s autograph)

After googling on: armenian ancient pharmacy

i found this interesting  book:   The Herbal of al-Ghafiqi

“Herbals” – collections describing plants used for medicinal purposes – were among the ancient and medieval world’s most valued scientific texts, synthesizing a vast treasury of medical learning to facilitate scientific edification for scholar, bibliophiles, or practical consultation by physicians.

Abu Ja’far al-Ghafiqi (d. ca. 1165 CE) lived in the Arab-Islamic zone of the southern Iberian peninsula called al-Andalus, a land of many cultures, religions, and languages.

His Herbal reflects the diverse milieu in which he lived, drawing from ancient Greek sources like Dioscorides and Galen as well as over thirty other works from India as well as the Hellenistic and Islamic worlds. The manuscript reproduced in this edition was purchased in 1912 by Sir William Osler and is now housed in the Osler Library of the History of Medicine at McGill University. It has entries for herbal, mineral, and animal-derived drugs, illustrated by almost 400 coloured, hand-drawn images of plants and animals. A glossary of over 2,000 secondary entries provides synonyms in Greek, Sanskrit, Syriac, Persian, Berber, Old Spanish, Latin, Coptic, and Armenian, reflecting the international character of medicine and pharmacy at the time. Essays by eminent scholars discuss the physical features and history of the manuscript, the philological complexity of the text, al-Ghafiqi’s sources, the Andalusian and larger global contexts of the Herbal, and the illustrations accompanying the text. A remarkable document, The Herbal of al-Ghafiqi will be a cherished addition to the library of anyone interested in the history of pharmacological science or in the history of the Islamic world.



 Gods / godesses

Anahit (Artemis) – The daughter or wife of Aramazd. Anahit was the most loved and honored Armenian goddess. She was mother-goddess. Anahit was sculptured with the child on her hands` with specific hair style of Armenians mothers or women and was called “Great Lady Anahit”.

Ancient Armenians believed that Armenian world was existing by Anahit’s will. Anahit was the cult of maternity and fertility. Anahit-worships were established in Eriza avan (region) and in Armavir, Artashat and Ashtishat cities . A mountain in Sophene district was known as Anahit’s throne (Athor Anahta).


Anahit (Armenian: Անահիտ) was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology. In early periods she was the goddess of war


The Persian Water Goddess Anahita

Anahita is the Persian goddess of water. She is also known as the Fertility Goddess, the Lady of the Beasts and the Goddess of the Sacred Dance. Anahita dominated the waters and ruled the stars and the fate.
She depicts the creative principle of females. Perceived with wings and accompanied by mighty lions, Anahita is often pictured with a bejewelled diadem of stars. She is also associated with lakes, rivers and waters of birth. She is the patroness of women and war goddess.


Anahita means “the immaculate one”. She is pictured as a virgin, donning a golden cloak and ornate in a diamond tiara. Her sacred animals are the dove and the peacock.

In this video:

We see that we can write anahit, anahid, anahita is a Kurdish goddess of water.
There is a temple in Kangawar (or Kangewar), city in Iran, and they mention Kirmashan in eastern Kurdistan.  and

In the ancient Persia, Anahita was very popular and is considered amongst The Great Goddess appearing in many eastern religions.

Following the anahit lead -> avesta zoroasterian -> zoroasterian (ancient monotheistic Iranian religion and a religious philosophy) -> Avesta again ->   Sāsānian period (ad 224–651)

There are 2 communities on the Zoroasterian: one in India (the Parsi) and

Other smaller ethnic groups of Persians includes the Lari people of Larestan (who are mostly Sunni Muslims) and the Qizilbash of Afghanistan who are related to the Farsiwan and Azerbaijanis. In the Caucasus, the Tats are concentrated in Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Russian Dagestan and their origins are traced to Sassanid merchants who settled in the region.

In the Indian subcontinent the Parsis are a distinct ethno-religious community that are descended from Persian (largely Khorasani) Zoroastrians. There is a Zoroastrian sect settled mainly in western India, centered around Gujarat and Mumbai. The Iranis, another small community in India, are descended from more recent Persian Zoroastrian immigrants.

The Avesta is the religious book of Zoroastrians that contains a collection of sacred texts.

Two names from that book:

ANAHITA: Stainless, immaculate; name (or epithet) of an angel (Ardvi Sura Anahita) identified with the sacred Waters (Aban)

ARDVISURA: lit. “mighty Ardvi”: Brilliant waters; name of a river in Iran; name of an angel (Ardvi Sura Anahita) identified with the sacred Waters (Aban)


When Persia conquered Babylonia (in the 6th century BCE), Anahita began to show some similarities with the goddess Ishtar. Since then her cult included the practice of temple prostitution. During the reign of king Artaxerxes (436-358 BCE) many temples were erected in her honor. Locations included Soesa, Ecbatana, and Babylon

She was also know as Lady of the Lions, or Lady of the Beasts, she is associated with rivers and lakes, the waters of birth, and as such was also depicted carrying a water pitcher.

Anahit was called “the Lady,” Armenian [Agathangelos] Anahit tikin, Gk. [Agathangelos] Artemis despoina (E. Benveniste, Titres et noms propres en iranien ancien, Paris, 1966, 46); inscriptional Pahl. ʾnhyt ZY MRʿTʾ ( = bānūg “lady”) in the inscription of Kartīr KZ line 8; the “golden mother” (Arm. oskemayr, Agathangelos 809). The exact meaning of this epithet is unclear; it may refer to the golden corn and to fertility, or to a golden cult statue. Anahit possessed a great temple at Erēz, Gk. Eriza, in the province of Acilisene (Pliny, Natural History 5.34, 83; Strabo 11.16; Cassius Dio, 36.48, 53.5, calls the entire region Anaitis chōra); a hellenistic bronze head, believed to be from a statue of Anahit but more probably from a Roman temple, was found at Satala and is kept in the British Museum (B. N. Aṙakʿelyan,Aknarkner hin Hayastani arvesti patmuṭʿyan

The 19th day of the Armenian month is named after Anahit, and she was worshipped on the water-holiday of Vardavaṙ; until recently, cattle bearing the brand of a star or half moon were slaughtered during the festival by the Armenians of Dersim, in Turkey, and it is probable that Anahit had absorbed these cult symbols of the Mesopotamian goddess Ištar…

source and More background info here.

Another feminine divinity, Inanna the “Lady of Heaven” of Uruk, was worshipped in Armenia as Nanē (on Inanna generally, see H. W. F. Saggs, The Greatness that was Babylon, London, 1962, p. 21). Her cult had become established in Elam (W. Hinz,The Lost World of Elam, London, 1972, p. 97) and was probably spread by the Achaemenid armies to eastern Iran (on her cult in Sogdia, see W. B. Henning, “The Date of the Sogdian Ancient Letters,” BSOAS 12, 1948, pp. 601-15; in Kušan and Bactria, see J. Rosenfield, The Dynastic Art of the Kushans, Berkeley, 1967 and G. Azarpay, “Nanā, the Sumero-Akkadian Goddess of Transoxiana,” JAOS 96, 1976, pp. 536-42). To the west, in Phrygia, Nanā was revered as the daughter of the river Sangaris and the mother of Attis (Arnobius 5.6.12), a possible clue as to the meaning of numerous mother-and-child figurines found at Artašat (Gk. Artaxata) (B. N. Aṙakʿelyan, op. cit., pls. 84-86). Nanē had a temple in Armenia at Ṭʿil (Agathangelos 786); she may appear as a luminous, supernatural being in a medieval Armenian love story, “Yovhannēs and Aša” (G. Šerencʿ, Vanay saz II, Tiflis, 1899, pp. 112-17).

this symbol of Inanna is on Wikipedia:

inanna star

Descr: Detail of a kudurru (stele) of King Melishipak I (1186–1172 BC), showing a version of the ancient Mesopotamian eight-pointed star symbol of the goddess Ishtar (Inana/Inanna), representing the planet Venus as the morning or evening star.

Also search on: Armenian mythology

 The Greek and Roman historians of classical antiquity refer to her either as Anaïtis



Nane, de godin van de wijsheid en het gevoel van heidense religie.
Beschouwd Aramazd ‘s dochter. Gelijkgesteld aan de Griekse Athena, godin. Nane’s tempel, die was in de Til dorp, verwoest door Gregory van rmenia van het christendom is het verspreiden van de tijd. Griekse mythologie is de naam van de sprookjes van Nane (beschouwd Sangaris dochter van de rivier en de geest van de bevalling).

Invloedrijke Armeense pantheon van godinnen Aramazd dochter, Nane, de keeper van de familie, wijsheid, gezond verstand en oorlog. Nane was nauw verbonden met de verering van Anahit aanbidding ‘s in de tempel Nane Yekeghyats provincie Thiel campus was van Anahit tempel. Nu zijn ze vaak een grote moeder, grootmoeder, Ze zeggen ook Nane, steeds een getuige aan de godin Nana, mardastvatsutyan en communicatie met mensen in zijn naam en de prevalentie van aanbidding.


Inanna/Isjtar vormt een drie-eenheid samen met de maangod Nanna of Suen (Sin in het Akkadisch) en de zonnegod Utu (Akkadisch: Sjamasj). Ze zijn personificaties van de aarde, de maan en de zon. Deze drie-eenheid overlapt een andere: An voor de hemel, Enlil voor de aarde en Enki (Ea in het Akkadisch) voor diepe wateren.

Nane (Armenian: Նանե, Nanė; Georgian: ნანა, Nana; Bulgarian: Нане, Nanė;Russian: Нанэ, Nanė) was an Armenian pagan mother goddess. She was the goddess of war, wisdom, and motherhood, and the daughter of the supreme godAramazd.
Nane looked like a young beautiful woman in the clothing of a warrior, with spear and shield in hand, like the Greek Athena, with whom she identified in the Hellenic period.
In Armenia and other countries, the name Nane continues to be used as a personal name.

Astlik, (Armenian: Աստղիկ)

Her name is the diminutive of Armenian աստղ astġ, meaning star, which through Proto-Indo-European

*h₂stḗr is cognate to Sanskrit stṛ, Avestan star, Pahlavi star, Persian sitara´, Pashto storai, Latin and Italian stella and astro, Frenchastre, Spanish astro, German stern, English star, etc.

Her principal seat was in Ashtishat (Taron), located to the North from Mush, where her chamber was dedicated to the name of Vahagn, the personification of a sun-god, her lover or husband according to popular tales, and had been named “Vahagn’s bedroom”.

Other temples and places of worship of Astghik had been located in various towns and villages, such as the mountain of Palaty (to the South-West from Lake Van), in Artamet (12 km from Van),[2] etc.

The unique monuments of prehistoric Armenia, “višap” vishaps (Arm. višap ‘serpent, dragon’) or “dragon stones”, spread in many provinces of historical Armenia – Gegharkunik, Aragatsotn, Javakhk, Tayk, etc., and are another manifastation of her worship [2]


and more info here: “ Sumerian Information of the Annunaki — compared to the Anakim


Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

During 1198–1375 Armenia had the Kingdom of Cilicia under Armenian rule.

Not to be confused with the Cilicia of 16th–14th century BC (as Kizzuwatna) and
12th–8th century BC (as Khilikku, Tabal, Quwê) until 546 BC.

The downfall of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia has influences with: Cyprus, France (house of Lusignans), Constantinople,  Jerusalem and Egypt.

Read on:



Armenian book of six thousand


There has been written about a book that has not been found.
The  Vets’ hazaryak  or Vetz hazaryak or “the book of six thousand”.
Could this be the Voynich?

read the PDF: a tale of two secret books Russell_TaleTwo


Iranica Online:
Composed in the meter of hazaǰ mosaddas aḵrab maqbūż maḥḏūr (- – ᴗ ᴗ | – ᴗ – ᴗ | – -) and written in the Hebrew alphabet, the work is partly based …

read on here


The Armenians have different kinds of writing, which can be defined as:

  1. Ergatachir (Ergbatbachir), writing with iron or with a stylus.
    • a. Zakghachir (Zakgbachir), flourished writing for titles of books and beginning of chapters
    • b. chassanachir, symbols, or in German: tierschrift (ref2)
    • c. chelhhachir, capitals
  2. Poloverchir, round writing which looks nice.
  3. Notrchir (Noderchir), cursive writing for the ordinary affairs of life.


* page 91 and beyond of “The origin and progress of writing..etc. By Thomas Astle 1784
* (ref2)
* for examples: