Greek II

Having invested in the Greek angle before,  it was in particular focused on the text. Because there were no direct cultural hints nor language indications that those have any connection with the investigated manuscript, it was abandoned.

Investigations on the wolkenbands, led to reading about Aristotle and a German paper about the Memminger doctor Stopel. The description of the many referenced works in that paper, led me to Greek mythical works by the reference of the Map by Daedalus of the Labyrinth on Crete. (p114, left top).


Being not familiar with the classical works, like the Greek myths, it took my immediate attention when i was reading about nymphs.

Ancient Greek writers describe many types of nymphs. This is the classification derived from

There is not one definition, for example: According to Hesiod, 3000 fresh-water Naiad Nymphs are daughters of Okeanos. There are also 3000 river gods, the Potamoi. In Homer’s Odyssey, the Nymphai are daughters of Zeus.

Fresh-water nymphs

  1. Okeanides, Oceanids
  2. Naiades, Naiads.
  3. Hydriades, hydriads. From Greek hydros=water

Tree & forest nymphs

  1. Dryades,Dryads
  2. Hamadryades or hadryades , Hamadryads
  3. Meliai , Meliae
  4. Melissai , Melissae
  5. Oreiades , Oreads

Meadow & marsh nymphs

  1. Epimelides , Epimelids
  2. Leimonides , Limonids
  3. Anthousai , Anthusae

Sky & star nymphs

  1. Nephelai , Nephelae of rain-clouds
  2. Aurai , Aurae of cool breezes
  3. Hesperides , Hesperids of sunsets
  4. Asteriai , Asteriae of the stars

Sea nymphs

  1. Haliai , Haliae
  2. Nereides , Nereids

Underworld nymphs

  1. Lampades , Lampads

Other nymphs

  1. Mainades , Maenads
  2. Nymphai , Nymphs


Naiad [Ancient Greek: Ναϊάδες]

Naiades, were nurses of the young and the protectors of girls, overseeing their safe passage from child to adult.  Apollon and the River-Gods were the complimentary guardians of boys.

The Naiades were depicted as beautiful young women, usually seated, standing or reclining beside a spring, and holding a water-jug (hydria) or a frond of lush foliage (a lot of plants).


pic hydria source 

pic frond source

The Naiads, 1881, painting.


In Greek mythology, the Naiads are a type of female spirit, or nymph, presiding over fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of fresh water.

The Naiades are the nymphs of freshwater streams rivers and lakes. Naiades could be found prancing around with Artemis, who chose 20 Naiades from Amnisus for companions. They were the daughters of rivergods. They had extremely long lifetimes, but they were not considered immortal, and were believed to have sat in on the Gods discussions on Olympus.

There were 5 types of Naiades:

  1. Pegaiai, the Nymphs of Springs
  2. Krinaia, the Nymphs of Fountains
  3. Potameides, the Nymphs of Rivers and Streams
  4. Limnades or Limnatides, the Nymphs of Lakes
  5. Eleionomai, the Nymphs of Marshes


Their powers, however, vary with those of the springs over which they preside; some were thus regarded as having the power of restoring sick persons to health (Pind. Ol. xii. 26; Paus. v. 5. § 6, vi. 22. § 4); and as water is necessary to feed all vegetation as well as all living beings, the water nymphs (Hydriades) were also worshipped along with Dionysus and Demeter as giving life and blessings to all created beings, and this attribute is expressed by a variety of epithets, such as karpotrophoi, aipolikai, nomiai, kourotrophoi, &c. -source-

Literal meaning of the name Naiad: Flowing Ones (Ionic spelling)

As you might remember, one of the most repeated words and similar forms in the manuscript are dain, daiin, ain.   Doesn’t it resemble the word naiad ?

Naiad [Ancient Greek: Ναϊάδες]

Could it mean this most repeated word is deliberately obfuscated,
by reversing first and last letter ?   Ναϊάδ[ες] ->  δαϊάv[ες]

It is just a thought.

Always wanted to investigate phonetic works of the Greek language, the phonetic written Greek language such as the research on the phonetic German in Hebrew on Loewe.

But never could find a good corpus or possibility to do that.
A sudden moment of enlightenment brought me the terms “Greek transliteration bible” which then showed me that there such actually existed. (here)

NAIAD NYMPH . source
(VMS f80v & 82r)


Water sprite paracelsus

A water sprite (also called a water fairy or water faery) is a general term for an elemental spirit associated with water, according to alchemist Paracelsus. Water sprites are said to be able to breathe water or air, and sometimes, can fly. They are mostly harmless unless threatened.



Crete [Κρήτης]

The island in Greece that is called Crete  (Kritis) has an ancient history.
The capital and the largest city is Heraklion, but before 1900 it was called Chandax, Candia (and similar names).


Cretan Renaissance



Have to mention that the pictogram on page f1r is like the symbol of Crete.  (Greek: Κρήτη, Ancient Greek: Κρήτη) which comes from wikipedia:


History and thought behind this Cretan symbol is unknown, but it seems an unofficial symbol probably based on the myth of the Minotaur horns.  Or is a combination of lilly and the horns?

-more reading-

Probably the symbol is based on water on the bottom, with an outline of the Minotaur, and in between that 3 branches with poppies? See this image from Gazi (Crete),  seal found in the Acropolis of Mycenae:


Demeter [Gr: Dēmḗtēr; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr)

is the goddess of the harvest and agriculture, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito (Σι τώ), “she of the Grain”, as the giver of food or grain.

Though Demeter is often described simply as the goddess of the harvest, she presided also over the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. Her Roman equivalent is Ceres.

In the ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, the Twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.

The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον from δώδεκα, dōdeka, “twelve” and θεοί, theoi, “gods”), were the principal deities of the Greek pantheon, said to reside atop Mount Olympus. (wikipedia)

Demeter and her familiy here

demeter with poppy and grain


According to the Isocrates, Demeter’s greatest gifts to humankind were agriculture, particularly of cereals, and the Mysteries which give the initiate higher hopes in this life and the afterlife.

In Homer’s Odyssey she is the blond-haired goddess who separates the chaff from the grain.In Hesiod, prayers to Zeus-Chthonios (chthonic Zeus) and Demeter help the crops grow full and strong. Demeter’s emblem is the poppy, a bright red flower that grows among the barley. In Hesiod’s Theogony, Demeter is the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. (wikipedia)

Source. Ceres holding a poppy in her hand.

The mundus cerialis (literally “the world” of Ceres) was a pit or underground vault in Rome, its shape is described as a reflection or inversion of the dome of the upper heavens. It was normally sealed by a stone lid known as the lapis manalis. Its origins, uses and location are disputed and it was opened on only three occasions in the religious year. The circumstances of this ceremony remain obscure:

With the mundus opened, and the fact announced by the declaration “mundus patet”, offerings were made there to agricultural or underworld deities, including Ceres as goddess of the fruitful earth and guardian of its underworld portals. On these days, the spirits of the dead could lawfully emerge from below and roam among the living, in what Warde Fowler describes as ‘holidays, so to speak, for the ghosts’. When it was re-sealed, they returned to the realms of the dead.

Papaver somniferum
Ceres was the opium poppy goddess and the poppy was the emblem of the goddess Demeter, her original Greek counterpart.
“for the Greeks Demeter was still a poppy goddess bearing sheaves and poppies in both hands ”

the sleep bringing poppies were connected with a Cretan cult which was transmitted to the Eleusinian mysteries in Classical Greece: “It seems probable that the Great Mother Goddess who bore the names Rhea and Demeter, brought the poppy with her from her Cretan cult in Eleusis and it is almost certain that in the Cretan cult sphere opium was prepared from poppies.”


Are you there ceres?




Demeter’s symbol is the poppy.

Mekon. [source ? not sure where this name comes from Greec?]
poppy = παπαρούνα ~ paparoúna
opium = όπιο ~ ópio

rosette detail and poppy flower detail



Minoan goddesses

On top of the Poppy Goddess’s head rest three moveable capsules of poppies.

read also:  here , or here on dances.


The (upper) middle hair is almost identical to Minoan style of the goddess with the birds.


The name poppy goddess was given to a large female figurine which is believed to represent a Minoan goddess, discovered in a sanctuary of the Post-palace period (LM III, 1400–1100 BC) at Gazi, Crete.

The terracotta figurine has raised hands and seeds of opium poppies on her head.

On the heads of the figures there are various religious symbols, such as horns of consecration, diadems, birds and the seeds of opium poppies.

The female figure known as the poppy goddess is perhaps a representation of the goddess as the bringer of sleep or death.

The raised hands of the idol indicate that it is a deity who gazes toward the visitor, and the gesture of the two upraised hands with open palms is the epiphany gesture of the goddess.It is possible that the goddess is giving a greeting, or a blessing, or is praying, or it may symbolize her appearance in earth in human form.

Robert Graves believed that a second meaning of the depiction and use of poppies in the Greco-Roman myths is the symbolism of the bright scarlet colour as signifying the promise of resurrection after death and that the poppy was the emblem of the goddess Demeter.

According to Theocritus for the Greeks Demeter was still a poppy goddess bearing sheaves and poppies in both hands (Idyll vii 157).

Karl Kerenyi asserted that poppies were connected with a Cretan cult which was transmitted to the Eleusinian mysteries in Classical Greece: “It seems probable that the Great Mother Goddess who bore the names Rhea and Demeter, brought the poppy with her from her Cretan cult to Eleusis and it is almost certain that in the Cretan cult sphere opium was prepared from poppies.”

..or are those figs ?

See also “Fresco from Knossos palace”.


Sicily (Italy)

The story on Daedalus and Icarus, where they wanted to flee to Italy. Icarus died but to the west Daedalus arrived safely in Sicily.

Another link to this island is the story of Kronos (Roman equivalent Saturnus). Cronus was usually depicted with a harpe, scythe or a sickle, which was the instrument he used to castrate and depose Uranus, his father.

Kronos identifies time as son of heaven and married to Rhea ( Greek: Ῥέα)  the Titaness daughter of the earth goddess Gaia and the sky god Uranus. Most ancient etymologists derived Rhea (‘Ρέα) by metathesis from έρα “ground”.    A feature of the fortunate islands is the connection with the god Cronus; the cult of Cronus had spread and connected to Sicily, in particular in the area near Agrigento where it was revered and in some areas associated with the cult of the Phoenician god Baal. See this page.



Ops  (Roman deity)

Ops or Opis (Latin: “Plenty”) was a fertility deity and earthgoddess of Sabine origin.

Generally holds a scepter or a corn spike as her main attributes. The husband of Ops was Saturn.

By Unknown – English Wikipedia, original upload 4 June 2004 by ChrisO, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Livia Drusilla, standing marble sculpture as Ops, with wheat sheaf and cornucopia. Marble, Roman artwork, 1st century CE.

Eleusinian mysteries



Greek Language Hatay Archaeology Museum, Antakya


vms f82v


A fresco from the Palace of Knossos is called Zatrichion chess board.
More info:


The Rosette Page.



The patterns in the images below do remind of the ladies in the baths  on the zodiac pages  (source):

In all those different barrels/containers with many different shapes.



The mermaid on f79v:

Perhaps she is the spirit of fresh water named Melusine., Publiek domein,

Have you ever looked at the Starbucks logo and wondered who or what that mythological creature was on it?

Melusine, the daughter of Pressina a full-fledged water fairy and the daughter of a mortal man, King Elinas (or King Helmas) wasn’t always a mermaid/serpentine creature. According to the myth and legend stories, she was stricken with this ailment or condition after her mother found out what Melusine did to her father, King Elinas.

King Elinas fell madly in love with her. He then asked for her hand in marriage. Pressina agreed to marry the king under the condition that he never enter into her chambers during or just after childbirth. Shortly after the marriage she became pregnant with triplets and soon thereafter gave birth to three daughters Melusine, Melior, and Plantina. King Elinas’ curiosity got the best of him after his elder son insisted that he go in and see his wife and new babies. Pressina was so overcome with sadness because her king had broken his promise, that she takes the babies and runs away off to a hidden island, Cephalonia. It’s an island in the West of Greece .

Die Geschichten der Melusine gehören zu den populären, alten, europäischen Mythen. Ihre Quellen reichen auf das 12. Jahrhundert zurück, während ihre tatsächlichen Ursprünge weitgehend im Dunkeln liegen –source

If the left image is Melusine, than her three children are on the right as animals as well?

The story of Melusine probably originates from Cyprus or region.
See the french wiki page for for coverage.


See also: Neck (water spirit) and Bäckahäst, bækhest.
for more nymphamanian possibilities.


Minoan symbols

The double axe is often depicted as held by women. It is never depicted as held by men, not until about 600-400 BC, much after the decline of the Minoan civilization, when there are greek representations of bearded male gods having claimed the labyris and the trident for their own.

The Snake Goddess, or else the handling of snakes by priestesses, was extremely important in Minoan religion, as shown by the numerous figurines of snakes and women or goddesses handling them. The snake probably derived its symbolic importance from its ability to change its skin.

Crete has more than 2000 caves, many of which are very large. Of  these, 35 are known to have been used for religious activities.



more info:

Greek Numerals

Here is a good overview on Greek numbers.

Personal note: some ‘start here’ indicators in the VMS look a bit like Aegan numerals.


The Musaeum or Mouseion at Alexandria (Ancient Greek: Μουσεῖον τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), which included the famous Library of Alexandria,[1] was an institution founded by Ptolemy I Soter or, perhaps more likely, by Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

This original Musaeum (“Institution of the Muses”) was the home of music or poetry, a philosophical school and library such as Plato’s Academy, also a storehouse of texts. It did not have a collection of works of art, rather it was an institution that brought together some of the best scholars of the Hellenistic world, analogous to a modern university. This original Musaeum was the source for the modern usage of the word museum.


Mouseion, connoting an assemblage gathered together under the protection of the Muses.


Muse [Μούσες]

There are always 9 muses, although in history, some write differently. They are:

Calliope: poetry, Clio: history, Euterpe: music, Erato: poetry
Melpomene: tragedy, Polyhymnia: hymns, Terpsichore: dance
Thalia: comedy, Urania: astronomy.

Ο Παυσανίας υποστηρίζει ότι υπήρχαν δύο γενιές Μουσών, όπου στην πρώτη γενιά ήταν τρεις και ήταν κόρες του Ουρανούκαι της Γαίας, και στη δεύτερη, ήταν εννέα και ήταν κόρες του Δία και της Μνημοσύνης.[3]

Οι αρχαιότερες Ελικωνιάδες Μούσες ήταν οι εξής:

Η ποιητική τέχνη χρειάζεται και τις τρεις αυτές Μούσες, χρειάζεται τον συνδυασμό του τραγουδιού, της μνήμης και της μελέτης. Γιατί για να τραγουδήσεις χρειάζεται πρώτα μνήμη, και μετά μελέτη (άσκηση).

Στους Δελφούς λάτρευαν τρεις μούσες, την Υπάτη, την Μέση και την Νεάτη ή Νήτη, οι οποίες έχουν την ίδια ονομασία με τις τρεις βασικές χορδές της λύρας. Κατά τον Πλούταρχο όμως σχετίζονται με τις τρεις περιοχές του κόσμου, την περιοχή των απλανών αστέρων, την περιοχή των πλανητών και την υποσελήνια περιοχή.[4][5][6]

Οι Μούσες αποτελούν την πηγή έμπνευσης για κάθε διανοητική δραστηριότητα και σε πολλά μέρη λατρεύονταν με ιδιαίτερες τιμές, ενώ υπάρχει Ορφικός Ύμνος των Μουσών.[7] Ο Πλάτωνας μέσα στην Ακαδημία του είχε βωμό αφιερωμένο στις Μούσες, ενώ ο Όμηρος επικαλείται την Μούσα Καλλιόπη σαν την πηγή της έμπνευσής του, κατά την συγγραφή των επών του. Το ίδιο συναντάμε και στα έργα του Ησίοδου, αλλά και σε όλους τους μεγάλους δημιουργούς της αρχαιότητας. Έχει δε μείνει μέχρι τις μέρες μας ο όρος μούσα να χρησιμοποιείται συχνά για να δείξει ότι κάποιος (συνήθως κάποια) εμπνέει ένα καλλιτέχνη, ένα δημιουργό. source


Their names are:

Κλειώ, Ευτέρπη, Θάλεια, Μελπομένη, Τερψιχόρη, Ερατώ, Πολυμνία, Ουρανία, Καλλιόπη.

The lyre (Greek: λύρα):

Laurel wreath:

In ancient Greece wreaths were awarded to victors, both in athletic competitions, including the ancient Olympics made of wild olive-tree known as kotinos (κότινος)


Chthonic (Greek χθόνιος khthonios “in, under, or beneath the earth”,
from χθών khthōn “earth”) literally means “subterranean”.

The translation of meaning discusses deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in Greek religion. The Greek word khthon / chthon, is one of several for “earth”; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land (as Gaia or Ge does), or the land as territory (as khora (χώρα) does).

Typical chthonic Greek gods are Hecate, Heracles, Persephone. But it is not certain which are exactly related to the chthon.

As well, the chthonic has connotations with regard to gender, in cultural anthropology; del Valle’s Gendered Anthropology describes there being “male and female deities at every level… men associated with the above, the sky, and women associated with the below, with the earth, water of the underground, and the chthonic deities.”



The term Allochthon in structural geology is used to describe a large block of rock which has been moved from its original site of formation, usually by low angle thrust faulting.

From the Greek “allo” meaning other and “chthon” designating the process of the land mass being moved under the earth and connecting two horizontally stacked décollements and thus “under the earth”.[6]
A Bothros (griechisch βόθρος, Plural Bothroi)  is an artificial hole in the ground where  ancient Greec offered wine, blood, animals to the god of the earth.

Bothroi waren zumeist Opfergruben mit den entsprechenden Resten an Keramik und Knochen oder bewusst niedergelegten Gegenständen.

In Italy similar pits these are called  Favissa, In Greec:  θησαυροί, however then used as reservoir or deposito during Roman times for objects.



(from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — “east” or “(sun)rise”; in modern Turkish: Anadolu), Asia Minor (from Greek: Μικρὰ Ἀσία Mīkrá Asía — “small Asia”; in modern Turkish: Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau. –source



The Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN 3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA Publishing GmbH.


The image depicts three of the Graces of classical mythology. It is frequently asserted that Raphael was inspired in his painting by a ruined Roman marble statue displayed in the Piccolomini Library of the Siena Cathedral.
The three women in the painting may represent stages of development of woman, with the girded figure on the left representing the maiden (Chastitas) and the woman to the right maturity (Voluptas),though other interpretations have certainly been advanced.

Cole presents the figures as handmaidens of Venus, holding the golden apples with which she is associated and affirming the proper connection of “Virtus” (presented by Vision) and Amor.
From Wikipedia

The Three Graces were reputed to be the essence of beauty, charm, and grace and were closely associated with the Nine Muses who presided and inspired song, dance, music, poetry and the sciences. They were regarded as the inspirers of the qualities which give attractiveness to wisdom, love, culture and social interaction. The names of the Three Graces were Aglaia, Thalia, and Euphrosyne.

See also Bl.Uk manuscript

On wikipedia is a list of all other water deities here.




If we look at the  “Rgreekl2.ttf © Copyright 2006 Vernon Eugene Kooy PhD This font is an expanded version of earlier versions, hence named Rgreekl2”  fontlist, we will see these interesting ligatures:


And mentions:  Historically ligatures lost their usefulness as the 18th century progressed, so that by the 19th century they have all but disappeared.

What is worth mentioning, unicode 962 shows just a plain ” c ”  as the symbol for the greek alliterated “s” in the section “Minuscule- 10th-13th centuries (Unicode Greek Section)”, and 1012 looks like a voynich k, but is in fact an alliterated “th”.


It seems there are more references:

Allen, Thomas William. Abbreviations in Greek Manuscripts Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1974

Colman, Walter. Selections from the Abbreuiationes et literarum nexus from Nicolaus Clenardus, Institutiones linguae Graeca, N. Clenardo authore, cum scholijs P. Antesignani Rapistagnensis. (Lyon: apud Matthiam Bonhomme, 1553). [charts can be found at: ] Copley, C. “Ligatures or Abbreviations in Ancient Greek MSS. & Editions” in Η ΚΑΙΝΗ ∆ΙΑΘΗΚΗ Novum Testamentum ad Exemplar Millianum cum emendationibus et lectionibus Griesbachi Philadelphia: Bliss. no date [First American Edition] {also found at:} Estienne, Robert Alphabetum graecum [Texte imprimé] : Modus orandi, graece & latine, abbreviationes aliquot graecae ; Alphabetum hebraicum : Decalogus, hebraice & latine Parisiis. Ex officina Roberti Stephani. 1528 [available at: 106138&M=pagination ] Groningen, Bernhard Abraham van Short Manual of Greek Palaeography Leiden: 1940 [charts available at: ] Ingram, William H. “The Ligatures of Early Printed Greek” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 7 (1966): 371-89. I. W. ??? Institutio Graecae Grammatices Compendiaria London: Buckley & Longman 1790 Lancelot, Claude A New Method of Learning with Greater Facility the Greek Tongue trans. Thomas Nugent. 2 vols. (London: J. Nourse & G. Hawkins 1746; rpt. Menston: Scolar Press, 1972) [charts at: and ] Mastoridis, Klimis The first greek typographic school HYΦEN 2, 75-86 Ostermann, G. F. von and Giegenack, A. E. Abbreviations in Early Greek Printed Books Chicago: Ares Publishers 1974 Proctor, Robert The Printing of Greek in the Fifteenth Century Oxford:1900. Thompson, Edward Maunde A Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography Chicago: Ares, 1975 Wallace, William “An Index of Greek Ligatures and Contractions” Journal of Hellenic Studies 43 (1923): 183-93. [Available through JSTOR at: 4269%281923%2943%3C183%3AAIOGLA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R ] Wilson, Nigel Mediaeval Greek Bookhands Examples Selected From Greek Manuscripts in Oxford Libraries Cambridge MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1972 [1995].


From source: the following:

Wie die meisten indogermanischen Sprachen kennt das Altgriechische drei Genera: Maskulinum (männlich), Femininum (weiblich) und Neutrum (sächlich). Männliche Personen sind oft maskulin, weibliche oft feminin.[6][7]

Winde, Flüsse und Monate sind oft maskulin,
Länder, Inseln und Städte oft feminin.[7]

Eine Besonderheit des Neutrums ist, dass bei einem neutralen Subjekt das Prädikat stets im Singular steht.

Neben dem Singular (Einzahl) und Plural (Mehrzahl) hat das Altgriechische noch in Resten den Dual (Zweizahl) behalten.

  • tō chōrā τὼ χώρα ‚die zwei Länder‘
  • τοῖν χώραιν ‚den zwei Ländern‘ ‚der zwei Länder‘

Das Genus commune ist bei einigen Vokabeln ebenfalls erhalten, etwa bei

(das sowohl ‚Rind‘ als auch ‚Ochse‘ oder ‚Kuh‘ heißen kan)

ho/hē bous
ὁ/ἡ βοῦς

Deklination der Substantive[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]
Das Altgriechische kennt drei grundlegende Deklinationsklassen: die o-Deklination, die a-Deklination und eine dritte, konsonantische Deklination.