In the VMS the characters S as a stand-alone word occurs 243 times.
Here is a list of all characters and their repeats (=rep) in the manuscript:
Reading the description of the English scientific book from the late 12th century, Walters Ms. W.73, Cosmography, it became clear to me that the character strongly resembles: est in Latin.
In the image above, look at the upper right symbol. It says: : “Hec figura solida est secundum geometriciam rationem,”
Because we do not know in what language or cipher the manuscript has been written, it could mean est, et, and, und, is, or anything similar in another language.
At this point that is not the utmost important observation, but what is important is the conclusion that the character is an abbreviation.
S= the letter e with a curl on top.
Another good example of an c + curl was shown at the end of the line in a German MS 1
“Der König und die Königin”. f7-8r end of the lines.
Again, Helmut provides the answer: it is “et cetera”. 7 for et and c with an abbreviation hook for [cetera]
In der newin stern schein und
Und mit den vier roselein die andern ding sint tozheyt ab
dies Elixir ist die warheit etc.
What’s interesting about this observation, is that IF s=abbreviation for letter c+something
then, it’s that it’s true for other letters with that curl on top.
For example, in the middle Rosette, I was examining the possible twelve zodiac names, and it is very clear that the letter i + curl on top = n
(the Green circle)
Suppose, it’s true and this Eva-r
is i+ curl = abbreviation.
Again, on the Walter Ms, we find such character without any effort on f8v
Looking at the green circled words: thank you Helmut Winkler:
un[ius], Gen. of unus, -a. -um
e[ius]que, i.e. et eius, eius Gen. of is, ea, id,
“there is an unabbreviated eius and eiusque in the line above.”
So the i + curl = ius
or at the bottom of f2r:
ei -> e[ius]
On f2r left part, (rotated)
“Septentrio (North Wind), the first of the cardinal winds, which is also called Aparcias, is cold and snowy. It blows straight from the North Pole and makes [everything] dry and cold and dries out the clouds.” “Aquilo ventus qui et boreas ex alto flat gelidus atque siccus et sine pluuia. quia non discutit nubes sed constringit,” or “Aquilo, the wind that is also called Boreas, blows