stars attached to women


Why has every women on the zodiac pages (70 and above) a star attached to herself ?
The ‘zodiac-pages’ all have 20 women in the outer circle and 10 in the inner circle, which makes 30 days equal to 30 women. Except a few zodiac pages, they have 10 outside and 5 inside and makes 15. Even the zodiac-page ‘virgo’ (f72v3) with a woman inside has a star attached.

It is rather an exception when a figure has no star attached there!

f70v2 pisces
f70v2 pisces


But the woman in f71v, the zodiac for gemini, does not have a star:

 f71v gemini
f71v gemini


Are there stars on all zodiacs?
Let us see: aries: no  taurus: no  gemini: no cancer: no leo: no libra: no  sagittarius: no
virgo: yes star,  scorpius: yes star, pisces: yes star
All these stars have ..points.

But why has Scorpius a star and Sagitarius none ? Because he is a man?

Let us look at F57v:

f57v: no stars

Then we see on f57v but also on the f75 and further a lot of women, but no stars for them.

 And further more on the “recipes-pages” all these tailed stars are there in the margin of the text:



By accident i stumbled upon this page with the text:

The motto of the Observatoire linguistique dates from 1990 – in French : Dans la galaxie des langues, la voix de chaque personne est une étoile:  “In the galaxy of languages, each person’s voice is a star”. From the year 2000 UNESCO adopted and adapted the Linguasphere Observatoire’s motto in the form: “In the galaxy of languages, each word is a star”.


Snorri Sturluson ((1179 – 1241)
was an Icelandic writes (poets), and politician who wrote several books and is most famous for his Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning (“the fooling of Gylfi”), a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, and the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was also the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegian kings that begins with legendary material in Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history.


Below :
Illustrations from years 1660 …1770  (text translated by ReverendÓlafur Brynjólfsson from ‘Prose Edda’ by Snorri, original was written in 13th century), showing that stars can be attached to people and animals, as long as they are gods or god-like. Link: see also this website

bookcoverEdda Book Cover Edda 1666
Odinn Huginn and Muninn. by  Jakob Sigurðsson (1727-1779)
The two ravens Hugin and Munin on
Odin’s shoulders in the top left
corner you clearly see
the sun is attached to Odin
Manuscript_Gylfi by  Jakob Sigurðsson (1727-1779)
King Gylfi gets himself beguiled.
From the 18th century Icelandic manuscript
in the care of the Árni Magnússon Institute in Iceland.
Olaus Verelius 1618-1682 Olaus Verelius 1618-1682
the Swedish King Gylfi, who is in disguise as Gangleri
(copperplate engraving)

Why is the sun/star connected to the person?

With the kind e-mail from Gerdur Steinthorsdóttir he answered as follows:

The person “Þridie” is poetic synonym for Óðinn/Odinn. The sun icon originates from Olaus Verelius copperplate rendering of Uppsala-Edda´s Gylfaginning illustration in Gautreks Saga (1664:42a).

Verelius wanted to connect pagan and classical mythology  and asserted that the Temple of Uppsala had originally been the Temple of Apollo, and therefore both temples could have been associated with the sun icon. Johannis Schefferus, another Swedish scholar, opposed the association of the Temple with that of Apollo. He may have retained the sun icon because the sun was considered to be the king of celestial bodies and Óðinn/Odinn, being one of the Æsir/Aesir, was an astral deity.

     The sun icon was originally a pen trial in Uppsala-Edda, a face with a crown that transformed into an icon of the sun with a human face.  Consequently, when the sun icon is present in renderings it indicates that the illustration was not copying  directly from Uppsala-Edda but from a rendering of Verelius copperplate.

 The answer is based on paper from The 14th International Saga Conference in Uppsala, 9th-15th August 2009

“Individuality and Iconography: Jakob Sigruðsson´s Renderings of Codex Upsaliensis f.26v” by Patricia A. Baer, University of Victoria, Canada.

Gerdur Steinthorsdóttir/Gerður Steinþórsdóttir



Verelius copperplate

Perhaps a star is a sign of being divine ?
When you have a star attached you have a god-connection.

It it known that from the zodiac signs that the signs that carry a star are gods in Norse myths like pisces and Odin


Number of points on the stars
In the VMS there are many stars.  I counted the most of them having 6, 7 or 8 points.
At folio’s where the author could have taken extra time in drawing the stars in the middle (f.e. zodiac) it seems that the stars have 7 points.


I did not find another manuscripts yet, in the same period of time with stars,

but look at this drawing, ‘OVUM ZOROASTRÆUM, From Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus (Rome, 1652-4)’.

We see that stars drawn by hand are often a bit out of shape. It is quite probable that it does not really matter how many points there are on a star during that time.

If that is true, we do need to look further and try to depict a deeper meaning behind the number of points on the stars, because there is no specific meaning intended by the writer of the VMS.

Giving or taking a star

On f82r something very special is happening:
a lying woman, with her eyes closed, is receiving, or perhaps (symbolic) going to a (7-pointed) star.  She is dreaming, she is sleeping or she is dead ?

I can think of these events:

a* a star influences her dream
b* a star is taken from her
c* a star is given to her

The women on the left probably wants to move something. This comes from her hand being in the pipe and also the attitude of the body of pushing something. Also the roots, or hairs coming from the pipe show movement going from left to right. That is, the woman on the left that stands on a heart-shaped ‘bath-tub’  triggers an event where a Mega-star in the middle receives a special air-flow*, from which a star leaves and is given to her.

This star on the right is then a divine ‘healing star’ ?
The direction of this event also follows the flow of air from the tube is clearly from the left.
The tail on the star also has such a curve that it appears this comes from above and descents to the lady lying down.

Is this special star in the middle perhaps based on a Compass_rose?
That could mean that the VMS incorperated the 12 compass winds somethere perhaps?


Note: * air-flow: read the page with that title for more images.



* Goddess Anahit: see page Armenian:  symbol for star

* national emblem of country Azerbaijan275px-Emblem_of_Azerbaijan.svg[1]

The state emblem of Azerbaijan mixes traditional and modern symbols. The focal point of the emblem is the fire symbol. This symbol comes from the fact that Azerbaijan has many everlasting fires which also gives the name “land of eternal fire”.

At the bottom of the emblem is a stalk of wheat, representing the main agricultural product of the nation, which was also part of the earlier arms. The other plant represented at the bottom is oak.


Sun of Vergina – A Greek symbol


Read more on:

Or do the stars have a textual meaning, such as “ydem”…? Read more here


No, i think simply the stars connected the same as “the Key of Solomon” (KoS). wiki

It probably dates back to the 14th or 15th century Italian Renaissance.

And there we are, back on the Hebrew track again…

key of solomon

Although the VMS uses 7 pointed stars, and the KoS has 5 pointed stars. The resemblance is striking.

source of KoS:  English: Clavicula Salomonis manuscript, British Library, Oriental MS 14759, fol. 35a.  More information on esotheric. 

“It is, therefore, advisable to know that the hours of the day and of the night together, are twenty-four in number, and that each hour is governed by one of the seven planets in regular order, commencing at the highest and descending to the lowest.

The order of the planets is as follows: ShBThAI, Shabbathai, Saturn;
beneath Saturn is TzDQ, Tzedeq, Jupiter;
beneath Jupiter is MADIM, Madim, Mars;
beneath Mars is ShMSh, Shemesh, the Sun;
beneath the Sun is NVGH, Nogah, Venus;
beneath Venus is KVKB, Kokav, Mercury;
and beneath Mercury is LBNH, Levanah, the Moon, which is the lowest of all the planets.”



If you at the time period stars are used as text bullets, but more often for zodiacs.

See for example:

writer: unknown
Nearly 1440 − Padua and/or Ferrara (IT)
Pages: about 70-78



If you search for the greek mythological twins Dioscuri.

You can find these images:

In Greek mythology, the Dioscuri (Διόσκουροι) Castor/Kastor and Polydeuces (Πολυδεύκης)/Pollux were the twin sons of Leda.
Also known as the Gemini, Latin for twins.

They are called the Dioscuri (dios kouroi), meaning the “Sons of Zeus” although it is not certain who their father is.

Also images: (stock photo’s/ private)

You will see that the star often means ZODIAC or SACRED.


Update 5-5-2016

On the right of the star: Stella

stella 1334
Postil on Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, written in 1397 by the Freiburg priest Rüdiger Schopf.
Basel, Universitätsbibliothek, A II 2
Paper · 180 ff. · 29.5-30.5 x 21 cm · [Freiburg im Breisgau] · 1397
Nycolaus de Lyra, Postilla super Leviticum, Numeros et Deuteronomium
— 13-8-2016
By Unknown Carthusian monk [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Transcription of the first twelve lines of the poem below the drawings, taken from Jessica Brantley: Reading in the Wilderness: Private Devotion and Public Performance in Late Medieval England, University Of Chicago Press, 2007, ISBN 0226071324, p. 19:

At þe begynyng of þe chartirhows god dyd schewe
To þe byschop of gracionapolitane, saynt hewe,
Seuen sternes goyng in wildernes to þat place
Wher now þe ordir of þe chartirhows abydyng has.
And when þes sternes at þat place had bene
At þe bischop’s fete, þai felle al bedene;
And aftyr þis visione þe sothe for to saye,
þe doctor Bruno and sex felows, withouten delay,
Come to þis holy bischop, cownsel to take,
To lyf solytary in wildernes, and þis warld to forsake
And at his feete mekly downe þai al felle,
Praying hymn of informacioun and his cownsell to telle.

Illustration org. Source:  James Hogg (ed): An Illustrated Yorkshire Carthusian Religious Miscellany British Library London Additional MS. 37049, Volume 3 : The Illustrations, 1981, Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik, Universität Salzburg, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria, p. 25

  • The four drawings depict the rôle of St. Hugh, Bishop of Grenoble, in the founding of the mother-house of the Carthusian Order, the Grand Chartreuse. (From p. 25 of the cited source.)
  • In the first image St. Hugh, both mitred and nimbed, sits on his episcopal throne, dreaming about the seven stars. These fall to the ground, dividing the visionary bishop in the visual syntax of the picture from Bruno, in a doctor’s cap, and his six companions. In the next scene, Hugh relates the dream to the seven who kneel, now in front of him. He then directs the group to a wilderness place, the desolation of which is indicated by a forest. Finally, the new Carthusian monks, arrayed in their distinctive white robes, enter the monastery they have built, while the bishop presides—whether metaphorically or literally is unclear—in the background. (Quoted from Jessica Brantley: Reading in the Wilderness: Private Devotion and Public Performance in Late Medieval England, University Of Chicago Press, 2007, ISBN 0226071324, p. 19.)

The seven stars depict the seven monks which founded the Carthusian Order.

One of them is Bruno le Chartreux 

Bruno, whose small community of devout Catholic hermits in the 11th century grew to become today’s Carthusian Order, was born in Cologne, Germany, circa 1032.

Their symbol:

Consists of an orb+TO-map + cross+7 stars.

See also:

They also produce the green liquor Chartreuse (see ) which contains 130 herbs by secret recipe.


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