f68r left page twirl

f68r left shows this f68r-left

I read somewhere about this folio f68r that it could be our milky way seen by a special device in 1400.  Sure 😉  perhaps you can read my name inside the picture too, i hid it there when i time travelled yesterday, disquised as Leonardo.

Have a look at the  wheel of Dharmacharka as an ancient symbol used by Buddhist teachings of Dhamma or Dharma by following the link. It represents the endless cycle of birth and rebirth. Modern versions of Dharmacakra normally have eight spokes symbolizing the noble eight fold path of Buddhism to enlightenment and Nirvana. In ancient times the number of spokes seems to have been irrelevant. Link: http://oldgoths.blogspot.nl/2009_05_01_archive.html


Ornament from Birkenes Norway ca 300 CE

Iron Age Swirling Wheel Ornament from Birkenes, Norway. Dated to ca. 300 CE. Similar Iron Age wheel ornaments are found several places in Norway.


This following picture is from a corner stone of a house (Gotland sweden).
Although this stone is probably made this century, this shows that the picture occurs often.

800px-Bildstein-Bro_kyrka_01see : http://www.gotlandsmuseum.se/1055


Interesting enough you can find this Borjgali symbol


in Georgië that is the symbol of the Sun with seven rotating wings. Which is itself related to to the Mesopotamian symbols of eternity.   Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borjgali

But……the twirl on f68r has 8 wings.




A Wheel with 6 or 8 spokes (an Rouelles) can be found here:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taranis .  In Celtic mythology Taranis was the god of thunder associated with this wheel, as he also was the ‘wheel-god’.
But that is really a wheel with straight spokes, not a twirl.

Also i want to mention the triple spiral or triskele is a Celtic and pre-Celtic symbol found on a number of Irish Megalithic and Neolithic sites, most notably inside the Newgrange passage tomb, on the entrance stone, and on some of the curbstones surrounding the mound. With respect to spiral’s you should visit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_spiral
But that is not like the f68r but resembles the same ‘art’. If you have a look at Portugese ‘carvings from the Castro de Santa‘ you will see that the twirl is in the same ‘family as the spiral’. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castro_culture

The twirl effect is perhaps coming from the Norse and /or Celtic paganism: discover this stone:  with a twirl that has 6 tentacles:

sanda gotland sweden 400 - 600 ce picturestonetwirl8 spokes on this twirl stone dated to 400 – 600 CE from Sanda in Gotland, Sweden. There the spokes or tentacles have spikey things on the outside.If you want to see more of these stones:-Take a 4D tour in the museum of Sweden-


Then if we would go to one of the islands in Greece (island Chios especially) you can find cities with xysta decoration. You can see those in Pyrgi and in Olympoi.


The meaning of Norse twirls:

Peasants celebrated in knowing days would commence to grow longer. They made a Yule Wheel that symbolized the sun, wrapped it in straw and place it at the top of a mountain. It was set on fire in a huge blaze that was sent rolling down the hill. 

This twirling, tumbling wheel of fire represented the new sun and the birth of the year to come.
“author:”Kari Hohne, The Waking Power of Dreams”
(another source:  Jacob Grimm who tells the same)

The Yule Wheel, Wheel of the year, Pagan wheel seems to be all the the same wheel, which of course has many different illustrations. This is one:


text with the picture: There are 8 Sabbats that make up the Wheel of the Year. The Sabbats are solar, seasonal and represent the cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth. These days are Samhain, Yule, Imbolc, Ostara, Beltain, Litha, Lughnasadh, and Mabon. Sabbats are celebrated in honor of the God, since it is His sacrifice of birth, life, death and rebirth that are represented by the Sabbats.

Yule    can refer to Joelfeest: see https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joelfeest

But also https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wagenwiel_(symbool)

Met de spaken van dit zonnerad kun je ook de letters van het ichthus-teken samenstellen. Het gebruik van het wiel is echter veel ouder. Wanneer je de Griekse letters – Ι Χ Θ Υ Σ – op elkaar legt, verschijnt het wiel zoals afgebeeld in bovenstaande afbeeldingen. Daarmee was het niet direct herkenbaar voor de vervolgers van christenen in Efeze. Het symbool is ook vaak versierd om herkenning te voorkomen. In Efeze zijn tientallen variaties te vinden. Een belangrijke variatie op de basisvorm is het Maltezer kruis.


"Ephesus IchthysCrop" by User:Mufunyo - Rotated and cropped from Commons image Image:Ephesus Ichthys.jpg. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ephesus_IchthysCrop.jpg#/media/File:Ephesus_IchthysCrop.jpg
“Ephesus IchthysCrop” by User:Mufunyo – Rotated and cropped from Commons image Image:Ephesus Ichthys.jpg. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ephesus_IchthysCrop.jpg#/media/File:Ephesus_IchthysCrop.jpg



The Staurogram (meaning monogram of the cross, from the Greek σταυρός, i.e. cross), or Monogrammatic Cross or Tau-Rho symbol, is composed by a tau (Τ) superimposed on a rho (Ρ). The Staurogram was first used to abbreviate the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament manuscripts such as P66, P45 and P75, almost like a nomen sacrum.[15]

Ephrem the Syrian in the 4th-century explained these two united letters stating that the tau refers to the cross, and the rho refers to the Greek word “help” (Βoήθια [sic]; proper spelling: Βoήθεια) which has the numerological value in Greek of 100 as the letter rho has. In such a way the symbol expresses the idea that the Cross saves.[15] The two letters tau and rho can also be found separately as symbols on early Christian ossuaries.


symbol of stadtbibliothek mainz
symbol of stadtbibliothek mainz



Macedonia (on the right of Italy with Roman and Greec influences)

Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Macedonia
…In the Republic of Macedonia there are 1,100 larger sources of water. The rivers flow into three different basins: the Aegean, the Adriaticand the Black Sea basin.

Very interesting and many pictures found on a Macedonic blog: http://iskonmakedonija.blogspot.nl/2010/01/blog-post_14.html

It seems these symbols appear many time on grave of Goce Delchev. They appear to be a version of the swastika (‘kolovrtot’ as they call it). The speak mostly Macedonian language.

Macedonian has a number of phonemes not found in neighbouring languages. Also the the cursive script is significantly different from the normal, and also Latin, alphabet:



Also have a look at the letters of the  Cyrillic alphabet:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_Cyrillic_alphabet

And the Bosnian Cyrillic:



The wheel of the year
The Wheel of the Year is an annual cycle of seasonal festivals in contemporary Paganism. It consists primarily of eight festivals based around the solstices and equinoxes, known as the quarter days, and the midpoints between, known as the cross quarter days.  Source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel_of_the_Year

The wheel of the year has no twirl but it has 8 spokes.

In Pagan cosmology these 8 spokes represent the year and the eight cycles of the sun. To represent these marks there are 8 celebrations:   text from:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheel_of_the_Year

Midwinter (Yule)
Yule stands for Midwinter.  From Germanic to Roman tradition, this is the most important time of celebration because it is the start of the new yearly cycle.
Imbolc and Dísablót
As the first cross-quarter day following Midwinter, this traditionally marks winter’s end and spring’s start.  Strongly associated with Brigid, daughter of The Dagda and one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Also in European tradition it is between February 2 and March 9 (between Imbolc and Ostara that the traditional carnivals are held which has it roots in pre-Christian customs.
Vernal equinox
The vernal equinox, often called Ostara, inaugurates the new year on the Zodiacal calendar. From this point the day overcomes the night. It is widely recognized by many mythologies as the time of rebirth or return for vegetation gods (e.g. Attis) and is celebrated as a time of great fertility.  Egg decorating is a very common tradition in vernal celebration throughout Europe.
The holiday is strongly associated with fertility goddess Ostara (the eastern star). She is notably associated with the fecund symbols of the hare and egg. Her teutonic name may be etymological ancestor of the words east and Easter.
Beltane, Floralia, and Walpurgis Night
Traditionally the first day of summer, the earliest celebrations appeared in pre-Christian times with the festival of Flora, the Roman goddess of flowers, and the Walpurgis Night celebrations of the Germanic countries. It is also strongly associated with the Gaelic Beltane (bright fire).
Midsummer and Summer solstice
Midsummer is one of the four solar holidays, and is considered the turning point at which summer reaches its height and the sun shines longest. Among the Wiccan sabbats, Midsummer is preceded by Beltane, and followed by Lammas or Lughnasadh.
Some traditions call the festival Litha, a name occurring in Bede’s Reckoning of Time (De Temporum Ratione, 7th century), which preserves a list of the (then-obsolete) Anglo-Saxon names for the twelve months. Ærra Liða (first or preceding Liða) roughly corresponds to June in the Gregorian calendar, and Æfterra Liða (following Liða) to July. Bede writes that “Litha means gentle or navigable, because in both these months the calm breezes are gentle and they were wont to sail upon the smooth sea”.
Lammas and Lughnasadh
Lammas or Lughnasadh is the first of the three Pagan autumn harvest festivals, the other two being the autumnal equinox (or Mabon) and Samhain. Wiccans mark the holiday by baking a figure of the god in bread and eating it, to symbolize the sanctity and importance of the harvest. Celebrations vary, as not all Pagans are Wiccans. The Celtic name Lughnasadh is used in some traditions to designate this holiday. Wiccan celebrations of this holiday are neither generally based on Celtic culture nor centered on the Celtic deity Lugh. This name seems to have been a late adoption among Wiccans. In early versions of Wiccan literature the festival is referred to as August Eve.
The name Lammas (contraction of loaf mass) implies it is an agrarian-based festival and feast of thanksgiving for grain and bread, which symbolizes the first fruits of the harvest. Pagan rituals may incorporate elements from either festival.
Autumnal equinox
The holiday of the autumnal equinox, Harvest Home, Mabon, the Feast of the Ingathering, Meán Fómhair or Alban Elfed (in Neo-Druidic traditions), is a Pagan ritual of thanksgiving for the fruits of the earth and a recognition of the need to share them to secure the blessings of the Goddess and the God during the coming winter months. The name Mabon was coined by Aidan Kelly around 1970 as a reference to Mabon ap Modron, a character from Welsh mythology. Among the sabbats, it is the second of the three Pagan harvest festivals, preceded by Lammas / Lughnasadh and followed by Samhain.
Neopagans honoring the dead as part of a Samhain ritual. Samhain is considered by Wiccans to be one of the four Greater Sabbats. Samhain is considered by some as a time to celebrate the lives of those who have passed on, and it often involves paying respect to ancestors, family members, elders of the faith, friends, pets, and other loved ones who have died. In some rituals the spirits of the departed are invited to attend the festivities. It is seen as a festival of darkness, which is balanced at the opposite point of the wheel by the festival of Beltane, which is celebrated as a festival of light and fertility.  Wiccans believe that at Samhain the veil between this world and the afterlife is at its thinnest point of the whole year, making it easier to communicate with those who have left this world.


Stars in the center of the diagram

In the center we see 3*5 stars and on the left we have 6 stars, makes a total of 21 stars.

The wheel of the year marks when winter and summer starts by showing the solstice.
A solsitice is an astronomical event that occurs twice each year as the Sun reaches its highest or lowest excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
As a result, on the day of the solstice, the Sun appears to have reached its highest or lowest annual altitude in the sky above the horizon at local solar noon. The solstices, together with the equinoxes, are connected with the seasons. In many cultures the solstices mark either the beginning or the midpoint of winter and summer.
The date is always on the 20th, 21th, 22th or 23th of the month, depending on the equinox.
Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solstice


The stars mark the number of days.
This folio shows the wheel of the year.

Wheel of eternity in Armenia:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRKdSruWAKg&feature=channel_video_title

Read here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_eternity_sign


The Armenian eternity sign (Armenian: Հավերժության հայկական նշան) is an ancient Armenian national symbol and a symbol of the national identity of the Armenian people.[1] It is one of the most common symbols in Armenian architecture,[2][3] carved on khachkars and on walls of churches.

Since the 5th century, it appeared on Armenian steles, later it becomes part of khachkar symbolism (A khachkar, also known as an Armenian cross-stone).

The symbol is also used by Armenian neopagan organizations and their followers. It is called by them “Arevakhach” (Արևախաչ, “sun cross”).

This VMS one has 8 arms.

Have a look at this impressive video:  http://youtu.be/lRKdSruWAKg

and this wiki  http://hy.wikipedia.org/here

twirl anania of sirak2

google text search like this:  ananias 7 th century phases of the moon

I partly translated this wheel after receiving a high res. copy of the pages of the book from the Brittisch Library. However the text with the wheel and inside the wheel did not give clues on the decyptherment of the VMS.

aug 2016

But, perhaps it shows something like an analysis of a plant as explained here:


Diagram 2. Diagram showing the position of the leaves relative to the stem axis and the spirals so formed.”

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