T-O Map

A typical T-O map or T in a circle can be seen on two pages 68v3,  and 86 rosetta page, upper right corner.

T in a circle

Also i stumbled upon the “upside-down-T in a circle” which has been found in the VMS on the “twirl”folio f68r,

in Etymologiae (or Origines, standard abbrev. Orig.) is an encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (died 636).

The “upside-down-T in a circle” symbol on the spine and cover is an artistic interpretation of the T and O map, which was first described in the Etymologiae, the most influential encyclopedic work of the Middle Ages.


Through the Middle Ages Etymologiae was the textbook most in use, regarded so highly as a repository of classical learning that, in a great measure, it superseded the use of the individual works of the classics themselves, full texts of which were no longer copied and thus were lost. The book was not only one of the most popular compendia in medieval libraries but was printed in at least ten editions between 1470 and 1530, showing Isidore’s continued popularity in the Renaissance, rivalling Vincent of Beauvais.

An early printed edition, by Guntherus Zainer, Augsburg, 1472: title page of book 14 (de terra et partibus), illustrated with a T and O map.

A stylized T and O map featuring the world as a wheel appeared in an early printed edition, published at Augsburg, 1472. The editio princeps, the first printed edition, was printed by Johann Sensenschmidt in Nuremberg in 1470.[5] The continent Asia is peopled by descendants of Sem or Shem, Africa by descendants of Ham and Europe by descendants of Japheth, the sons of Noah.

Found on 16r, MS around 1500, from Ludovicus de Angulo (Louis de Langle), De Figura seu imagine mundi.

St. Gallen, Kantonsbibliothek, Vadianische Sammlung, VadSlg Ms. 427: Ludovicus de Angulo (Louis de Langle), De Figura seu imagine mundi


which says: asia / europa /africa and then the 4 wind directions.


Zandbergen: voynich.nu:   T-O maps writes

Some pages contain a circle subdivided into two halves, with one half further split into two quarters. This design is very similar to a medieval stylized world map referred to as a T-O map. The three sections of the T-O map refer to the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa. These maps may be seen on the following pages:



The VMS text in the middle f68r

Further explanation of the middle of this folio also read this page “Regalia and T in a circle” (click on it) . In the middle we have “asia, europa and africa” surrounded by “oceanus”.

Probably 4 spokes will be winddirections and the other four  will be the 4 seasons?

See the page “twirl for actual info

f86r to map
f86r to map

The transcribed EVA text on this folio, can be found here.


Following the possibilities of the text Europa and Africa  I made an analysis but nothing holds.

Also on the rosette page f86 on the upper right corner there is a similar T-O map. This time with different text:

tomap on f86 rosettetomap on f86 rosette2

The diagram of the Roger Bacon (Mathematician 1200-1292)   collection (source)  resembles a bit:

roger bacon circular T-O diagram
roger bacon circular T-O diagram, Plate XXXVIII a. ROGER BACON’S DIAGRAM OF THE EYE. XIIIth Century



And, since we are looking tn the deep…

This is frater Frater Rogerius Bacon’s (another Roger Bacon !) book from the 16th century :

source:  http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=harley_ms_2269_f001r

1st half of the 16th century, An astronomical compendium with horoscopes and texts relating to the practice of medicine.

The manuscript includes:

1. Astrological compendium attributed to ‘Frater Rogerius Bacon’ (ff. 1r-8r);

2. Astrological diagrams and notes (ff. 8v-10r);

3. Two astrological notes about the moon and the Zodiac (f. 10v);

4. Astrological compendium, continuation of ff. 1r-8r (ff. 11r-29v);

5. Astrological notes (ff. 30v-31r);

6. Astronomical tables with additional calendrical material (ff. 35r-50v);

7. ‘De viciis lune et eius male esse’ (ff. 51r-61v);8. Astrological compendium (ff. 62r-87v);

9. Guilhelmus Anglicus, De urina non visa, (?) (ff. 88r-89r);

10. ‘The lottis of the mone’ (f. 90r);

11. ‘De egro quomodo se habebit per iudicium 12 domorum’ (ff. 90r-90v);

12. Pharmacological text relating to astrology (ff. 91r-91v);

13. Notes about the planets and planetary houses (ff. 92r-97v);

14. ‘Divisio signorum et planetarum’ (ff. 98r-115v);

15. Astrological compendium (ff. 116r-132v).


England.Provenance: Cancelled ownership (?) note (f. 133v).John Molland, inscribed with his name, late 16th or 17th century

(f. 74r).Samuel Knott (d. 1687), Rector of Combe Raleigh, co. Devon, priest of Broad Hembury, co. Devon, his note signed ‘S. Kanuto’ (f. 8r). Robert Burscough (1650/51-1709), prebendary of Exeter in 1701, archdeacon of Barnstaple in 1703, rector of Cheriton Bishop in 1705: acquired with other manuscripts by Robert Harley (1661-1724), 1st earl of Oxford and Mortimer, from Burscough’s widow on 17 May 1715, the date noted by Harley’s librarian Humfrey Wanley (1672–1726), on f. 1r (for the negotiation preceding the purchase see Diary 1966).The Harley Collection, formed by Robert Harley (b. 1661, d. 1724), 1st earl of Oxford and Mortimer, politician, and Edward Harley (b. 1689, d. 1741), 2nd earl of Oxford and Mortimer, book collector and patron of the arts.

Edward Harley bequeathed the library to his widow, Henrietta, née Cavendish Holles (b. 1694, d. 1755) during her lifetime and thereafter to their daughter, Margaret Cavendish Bentinck (b. 1715, d.1785), duchess of Portland; the manuscripts were sold by the Countess and the Duchess in 1753 to the nation for £10,000 (a fraction of their contemporary value) under the Act of Parliament that also established the British Museum; the Harley manuscripts form one of the foundation collections of the British Library. Harley shelfmarks ’99.B.8 / 2269′ in dark brown ink followed by ‘2 / IV D’ in pencil (f. i recto).

The first folio:


in red: Frater Rogerius Bacon

‘Notandum est that in eu..y(?) ingenient there ben 4 things to be sowght’.

translation: Note that in …  .. there are 4 things to be searched

folio 8v picture


Spera Solus -> “trust you will see the sun ”

In the center:  centu (centrum) –  (ajudi=) mundi -apid/apium? – terre

Meaning: center – world – wild land ?-  earth

Spera luna -> expect the moon

Spera ignio -> expect ignition (?)

Spera aerio -> expect air

Ajedia regio-> expect land

folio 9r:  Of the disposition of the .ij Signes, ri…d and no..  … common signes

Aries is a  signus moveable h…etc

-see also this page on my crypto efforts Bacon cipher-

Sept 2017:

(from several sources, but quoted from: The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from … Door David Kahn)

Roger Bacon had recognized the Great Nebula in Andromeda as a spiral galaxy….In a concave mirror I saw a star in the form of a snail…between the navel of Pegasus, the girdle of Andromeda and the head of against Cassiopeia.


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